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Irradiation and postangioplasty restenosis: a recent overview

Irradiation and postangioplasty restenosis: a recent overview

Japanese Heart Journal 41(5): 541-570

One of the most intriguing developments in recent years towards prevention of restenosis after angioplasty is the use of ionizing radiation. The background for the use of radiation treatment for this application is sound, since radiation is used not only to treat malignant cancerous growths but also is used for treatment of benign hyperplastic disorders such as post-surgical keloid formation and recurrence of pterygium after surgical removal. Restenosis can be considered a form of overexuberant wound healing triggered by angioplasty. Ionizing radiation inhibits serum-stimulated proliferation of many cell types including fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in vitro and also suppresses the synthesis of collagen by cultured fibroblasts. Liermann who showed inhibition of post-stent restenosis first used ionizing radiation for restenosis prevention clinically in iliac and iliofemoral arteries. Subsequently, extensive animal studies in various restenosis models have shown a profound inhibitory effect of catheter-based radiation (endovascular brachytherapy) on neointima formation and overall vessel shrinkage (negative remodeling). Based on these results clinical trials have been initiated with several types of devices and isotopes. Among these are 192Ir, 32P, 90Y, 90Sr/Y and 188Re. Additionally, radioactive stents have been developed; devices for clinical use are made radioactive at the microCi level by surface implantation of 32P ions. Results from early clinical trials are encouraging and brachytherapy appears safe for clinical use and at an appropriate dose, may be highly effective for restenosis prevention.

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Accession: 010885603

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PMID: 11132163

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