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Is Echo a complex adaptive system?



Is Echo a complex adaptive system?



Evolutionary Computation 8(4): 419-442



We evaluate whether John Holland's Echo model exemplifies his theory of complex adaptive systems. After reviewing Holland's theory of complex adaptive systems and describing his Escho model, we describe and explain the characteristic evolutionary behavior observed in a series of Echo model runs. We conclude that Echo lacks the diversity of hierarchically organized aggregates that typify complex adaptive systems, and we explore possible explanations for this failure.

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Accession: 010885986

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 11130923

DOI: 10.1162/106365600568248



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