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Lead-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses in the nervous system



Lead-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses in the nervous system



Neurochemical Research 28(1): 153-162



Lead (Pb) poisoning continues to be a significant health risk because of its pervasiveness in the environment, its known neurotoxic effects in children, and potential endogenous exposure from Pb deposited in bone. New information about mechanisms by which Pb enters cells and its organelle targets within cells are briefly reviewed. Toxic effects of Pb on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are considered in detail, based on recent evidence that Pb induces the expression of the gene for 78-kD glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and other ER stress genes. GRP78 is a molecular chaperone that binds transiently to proteins traversing through the ER and facilitates their folding, assembly, and transport. Models are presented for the induction of ER stress by Pb in astrocytes, the major cell type of the central nervous system, in which Pb accumulates. A key feature of the models is disruption of GRP78 function by direct Pb binding. Possible pathways by which Pb-bound GRP78 stimulates the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the ER are discussed, specifically transduction by IRE1/ATF6 and/or IRE1/JNK. The effect of Pb binding to GRP78 in the ER is expected to be a key component for understanding mechanisms of Pb-induced ER stress gene expression.

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Accession: 010914356

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 12587673

DOI: 10.1023/a:1021664632393


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