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Leptin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha mRNA expression in adipose tissue of humans and their relation to cardiovascular risk factors

Krempler, F.; Breban, D.; Oberkofler, H.; Esterbauer, H.; Hell, E.; Paulweber, B.; Patsch, W.

Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 20(2): 443-449

2000


ISSN/ISBN: 1079-5642
PMID: 10669642
DOI: 10.1161/01.atv.20.2.443
Accession: 010917582

Obesity is a prevalent disorder that increases the risk for premature cardiovascular disease. The adipose tissue itself plays an active role in the regulation of fuel metabolism and energy homeostasis by expressing a number of regulatory genes, such as leptin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha). To study the in vivo relationships among these genes and their associations with cardiovascular risk factors, plasma levels of leptin, lipids, apolipoproteins (apo), insulin, and glucose were measured in 216 obese, 165 nonobese, and 36 weight-losing postobese subjects. mRNA expression of leptin, PPARgamma, and C/EBPalpha in the extraperitoneal and intraperitoneal adipose tissue was quantified in subsets of subjects. In obese individuals, plasma leptin was associated with apoA-I (r=0.2346, P<0.001) and insulin (r=0.2125, P<0.002). Leptin and C/EBPalpha mRNA expression in extraperitoneal and intraperitoneal adipose tissue of obese patients was higher than in the respective tissues of nonobese or postobese subjects. No significant differences among the study groups were found for PPARgamma mRNA expression. Leptin, PPARgamma, and C/EBPalpha mRNA levels correlated with each other in the intraperitoneal and extraperitoneal fat of obese subjects, but multivariate analysis revealed that only C/EBPalpha was a predictor of leptin expression in extraperitoneal tissue (partial r=0.6096, P<0.001). Intraperitoneal PPARgamma expression was inversely related to fasting insulin (r=-0.2888, P<0.017) and a fasting insulin resistance index (r=-0.2814, P<0.021) in obese subjects. In postobese patients, intraperitoneal PPARgamma expression was associated with plasma HDL cholesterol (r=0.5695, P<0.018) and apoA-I (r=0.6216, P<0.008) but was inversely related to LDL cholesterol (r=-0.5101, P<0.03) and apoB (r=-0.6331, P<0.007). These findings suggest a relationship between plasma leptin and HDL metabolism as well as adipose-tissue site-dependent associations among leptin, C/EBP-alpha, and PPAR-gamma mRNA expression. Furthermore, our results suggest that C/EBP-alpha enhances leptin expression in vivo and that PPARgamma mRNA expression is inversely associated with cardiovascular risk factors.

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