Modulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 tyrosine phosphorylation by an Akt/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway
Li, J.; DeFea, K.; Roth, R.A.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 274(14): 9351-9356
Serine/threonine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) has been implicated as a negative regulator of insulin signaling. Prior studies have indicated that this negative regulation by protein kinase C involves the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphorylation of serine 612 in IRS-1. In the present studies, the negative regulation by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was compared with that induced by endothelin-1, an activator of protein kinase C. In contrast to endothelin-1, the inhibitory effects of PDGF did not require mitogen-activated protein kinase or the phosphorylation of serine 612. Instead, three other serines in the phosphorylation domain of IRS-1 (serines 632, 662, and 731) were required for the negative regulation by PDGF. In addition, the PDGF-activated serine/threonine kinase called Akt was found to inhibit insulin signaling. Moreover, this inhibition required the same IRS-1 serine residues as the inhibition by PDGF. Finally, the negative regulatory effects of PDGF and Akt were inhibited by rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), one of the downstream targets of Akt. These studies implicate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt kinase cascade as an additional negative regulatory pathway for the insulin signaling cascade.