Molecular modeling for the design of a biomimetic chimeric ligand. Application to the purification of bovine heart L-lactate dehydrogenase

Labrou, N.E.; Eliopoulos, E.; Clonis, Y.D.

Biotechnology and Bioengineering 63(3): 322-332


ISSN/ISBN: 0006-3592
PMID: 10099612
DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0290(19990505)63:3<322::aid-bit9>;2-c
Accession: 011009668

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Molecular modeling was employed for the design of a biomimetic chimeric ligand for L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). This ligand is an anthraquinone monochlorotriazinyl dye comprising two moieties: (a) the ketocarboxyl biomimetic moiety, 2-(4-aminophenyl)-ethyloxamic acid, linked on the monochlorotriazine ring, mimicking the natural substrate of LDH, and (b) the anthraquinone chromophore moiety, linked also on the same monochlorotriazine ring via a diaminobenzenesulfonate group, acting as pseudomimetic of the cofactor NAD+. The positioning of the dye in the enzyme's binding site is primarily achieved by the recognition and positioning of the pseudomimetic anthraquinone moiety. The positioning of the biomimetic ketocarboxylic moiety is based on a match between the polar and hydrophobic regions of the enzyme's binding site with those of the biomimetic moiety of the ligand. The length of the biomimetic moiety is predetermined for the ketoacid to approach the enzyme catalytic site and form charge-charge interactions. The biomimetic chimeric ligand and the commercial nonbiomimetic ligand Cibacron(R) blue 3GA (CB3GA), were immobilized on crosslinked beaded agarose gel via their chlorotriazine ring. The two affinity adsorbents were evaluated for their purifying ability for LDH from six sources (bovine heart and pancreas, porcine muscle, chicken liver and muscle, and pea seeds). The biomimetic adsorbent exhibited approximately twofold higher purifying ability for LDH compared to the CB3GA adsorbent; therefore, the former was integrated in the purification procedure of LDH from bovine heart extract. The LDH afforded by this two-step purification procedure shows specific activity equal to 600 U/mg (25 degrees C) and a single band after SDS-PAGE analysis.