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Neurologic complications associated with oral poliovirus vaccine and genomic variability of the vaccine strains after multiplication in humans



Neurologic complications associated with oral poliovirus vaccine and genomic variability of the vaccine strains after multiplication in humans



Acta Virologica 42(3): 187-194



The oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has been effectively used in the reduction and control of poliomyelitis cases on the planet. Despite several advantages of using the attenuated OPV strains, the rare occurrence of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases in vaccine recipients and their susceptible contacts is a disadvantage. Molecular biology studies of polioviruses isolated from stool and central nervous system (CNS) of patients with VAPP have confirmed the vaccine origin of the isolates and demonstrated genomic modifications known or suspected to increase the neurovirulence. Similar genomic modifications have also been identified in OPV-derived strains isolated from healthy vaccinees and healthy contacts, suggesting that host factors are also involved in the establishment of poliomyelitis. Other neurologic complications such as meningitis, encephalitis, convulsions, transverse myelitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome have also been rarely associated with the use of this vaccine. The characterization of polioviruses isolated from such cases has demonstrated their OPV origin.

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Accession: 011047446

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PMID: 9842449



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