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Neuropathologic characterization of a rodent model of closed head injury-Addition of clinically relevant secondary insults does not significantly potentiate brain damage

Neuropathologic characterization of a rodent model of closed head injury-Addition of clinically relevant secondary insults does not significantly potentiate brain damage

Journal of Neurotrauma 16(7): 603-615

We have characterized the early brain pathology in Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to a modified Richmond impact acceleration model of closed head injury (CHI). This model was modified to produce maximal traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the absence of skull fracture, extracerebral or intracerebral hemorrhage, or brain contusion. We then used this model to assess the neuropathologic effects of superimposed secondary insults, which were designed to reflect a clinically relevant combination of hypotension and pyrexia. Acute neuronal injury, blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, axonal injury (AI), and glial activation were studied 4 1/2 hours following either CHI (group A), CHI plus secondary insults (group B), secondary insults alone (group C), or sham control injury (group D). There was evidence of limited AI following CHI in the lower medulla and upper cervical cord region, which was not modified by addition of secondary insult. Loss of dendritic microtubule-associated protein MAP2 immunoreactivity proved a reliable marker of acute neuronal damage, which was confined to subimpact and inferolateral cortical locations following CHI and was widespread after secondary insult. The pattern of plasma protein extravasation paralleled that of acute neuronal injury. We found no evidence of microglial activation, either local or generalized, by 4 1/2 hours. However, by this time CHI and secondary insults had combined to produce evidence of subimpact astrocyte activation, which was not apparent with either insult or injury alone. We conclude that in this modified Richmond model of CHI, when combined with secondary insults, there is no convincing potentiation of brain damage with the minor exception of astrocyte activation.

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Accession: 011048821

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 10447072

DOI: 10.1089/neu.1999.16.603

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