Nonparametric population pharmacokinetic analysis of amikacin in neonates, infants, and children

Tréluyer, J.M.; Merlé, Y.; Tonnelier, S.; Rey, E.; Pons, G.

Antimicrobial Agents and ChemoTherapy 46(5): 1381-1387


ISSN/ISBN: 0066-4804
PMID: 11959572
DOI: 10.1128/aac.46.5.1381-1387.2002
Accession: 011067376

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The therapeutic and toxic effects of amikacin are known to depend on its concentration in plasma, but the pharmacokinetics of this drug in neonates, infants, and children and the influences of clinical and biological variables have been only partially assessed. Therapeutic drug monitoring data collected from 155 patients (49 neonates, 77 infants, and 29 children) receiving amikacin were analyzed by a nonparametric population-based approach, the nonparametric maximum-likelihood method. We assessed the effects of gestational and postnatal age, weight, Apgar score, and plasma creatinine and urea concentrations on pharmacokinetic parameters. There is no specific formulation of amikacin for neonates and infants. We therefore used an error model to account for errors due to dilution during preparation of the infusion. The covariates that reduced the variance of clearance from plasma and the volume of distribution by more than 10% were postnatal age (43 and 28%, respectively) and body weight (30.4 and 17.4%, respectively). The expected reduction of clearance was about 10% for the plasma creatinine concentration. The other covariates studied (Apgar scores, plasma urea concentration, gestational age, sex) were found to have little effect. Simulations showed that a smaller percentage of patients had a maximum concentration in plasma/MIC ratio greater than 8 with a regimen of 7.5 mg/kg of body weight twice daily than with a regimen of 15 mg/kg once a day for MICs of 1 to 8 mg/liter.