+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Pavlovian aversive and appetitive odor conditioning in humans: subjective, peripheral, and electrocortical changes

Pavlovian aversive and appetitive odor conditioning in humans: subjective, peripheral, and electrocortical changes

Experimental Brain Research 132(2): 203-215

Differential Pavlovian conditioning of aversive and appetitive odors was examined in 30 male healthy subjects. The appetitive conditioning group (n=15) received a pleasant odor (vanilla), the aversive conditioning group (n=15) an unpleasant odor (fermented yeast) as unconditioned stimulus. Slides of two different neutral faces that were easy to discriminate served as conditioned stimuli (CS). An EEG was recorded from nine electrodes. Electromyographic activity was measured bilaterally from the m. corrugator supercilii and m. zygomaticus. The startle response was obtained from the m. orbicularis oculi. Finally, heart rate and skin conductance response were assessed. The subjective data and the skin conductance response revealed successful differential aversive conditioning. By contrast, the pleasant odor failed to produce appetitive odor conditioning. The conditioned and unconditioned response of the corrugator muscles confirm previous reports on the m. corrugator being strongly involved in the expression of negative affect. Contrary to previous findings, magnitude of the startle reflex was not found to be modulated depending on the valence of the CS. Central psychophysiological parameters showed little change during differential conditioning. The presence of subjective-evaluative conditioning and contingency awareness without significant changes in cortical and cardiovascular correlates might be due to extremely localized cortical processing of conditioned olfactory cues or primarily subcortical processing. The latter interpretation is strengthened by the presence of differential conditioning in non-voluntary responses such as the corrugator muscles.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 011125079

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 10853945

DOI: 10.1007/s002210000343

Related references

Appetitive-aversive interactions in Pavlovian fear conditioning. Behavioral Neuroscience 126(3): 404-422, 2012

Mechanisms of attention for appetitive and aversive outcomes in Pavlovian conditioning. Behavioural Brain Research 213(1): 19-26, 2010

Neural correlates of appetitive-aversive interactions in Pavlovian fear conditioning. Learning and Memory 20(4): 220-228, 2013

Inhibitory unit activity of the ventral forebrain during both appetitive and aversive Pavlovian conditioning. Brain Research 80(1): 146-151, 1974

Differential effects of amphetamines-induced neurotoxicity on appetitive and aversive Pavlovian conditioning in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology 30(6): 1128-1137, 2005

Roles of Octopamine and Dopamine Neurons for Mediating Appetitive and Aversive Signals in Pavlovian Conditioning in Crickets. Frontiers in Physiology 8: 1027, 2017

Posttraining glucocorticoid receptor agonist enhances memory in appetitive and aversive pavlovian discrete-cue conditioning paradigms. Neurobiology of Learning & Memory 78(2): 458-464, 2002

Appetitive vs. Aversive conditioning in humans. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 9: 128, 2015

Effects of posttraining/postpreexposure glucocorticoid receptor agonist in appetitive and aversive discrete cue Pavlovian conditioning paradigms and latent inhibition. Journal of Psychopharmacology 14(3 Suppl.): A51, 2000

Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure ii. behavior learning and retention of appetitive and aversive odor conditioning in infancy. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 13(1): 695, 1987

Measuring Pavlovian appetitive conditioning in humans with the postauricular reflex. Psychophysiology 55(8): E13073, 2018

Psychophysiological and subjective indicators of aversive pavlovian conditioning in generalized social phobia. Biological Psychiatry 52(4): 328-337, 2002

Asymmetrical effects of pavlovian excitatory and inhibitory aversive transfer on pavlovian appetitive responding and acquisition. Learning & Motivation 16(1): 35-62, 1985

Aversive Pavlovian conditioning in psychopaths: Peripheral and central correlates. Psychophysiology 39(4): 505-518, 2002

Transfer from Pavlovian appetitive to instrumental appetitive conditioning: signaling versus discrepancy interpretations. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Behavior Processes 4(1): 37-49, 1978