+ Translate
+ Most Popular
Gaucher's disease;thirty-two years experience at Siriraj Hospital
A study of Macrobathra Meyrick from China (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae)
First occurrence in ores of tetragonal chalcocite
Effects of trace element nutrition on sleep patterns in adult women
N.Z. range management guidelines. 2. Design of grazing management systems for tussock country
A case of lipoma of the esophagus
A revision of world Acanthosomatidae (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae): keys to and descriptions of subfamilies, tribes and genera, with designation of types
Life history of the coronate scyphozoan Linuche unguiculata (Swartz, 1788)
Perceptual restoration of obliterated sounds
Mutagenicity studies on two chromium(III) coordination compounds
The formation of the skeleton. I. Growth of a long bone. 1st appearance of a center of calcification
Leucopenia and abnormal liver function in travellers on malaria chemoprophylaxis
The joint commission: four key root causes loom large in sentinel event data
Treatment of vitiligo with topical 15% lactic acid solution in combination with ultra violet-A
Behaviour of dairy cows within three hours after feed supply: I. Influence of housing type and time elapsing after feed supply
Observations of the propagation velocity and formation mechanism of burst fractures caused by gunshot
Management and control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Lebanon: results from the International Diabetes Management Practices Study (IDMPS)
The diet composition and nutritional knowledge of patients with anorexia nervosa
Physoporella croatica Herak, 1958 of the Slovak karst Anisian (Slovakia, the West Carpathians Mts.)
Bright lights, big noise. How effective are vehicle warning systems?
Ein Plesiosaurier-Rest mit Magensteinen aus mittlerem Lias von Quedlinburg
Incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis in patients with sterility
Monster soup: the microscope and Victorian fantasy
Preliminary tests with residual sprays against poultry lice
Duration of the life of plants in phylogeny

Plant spacing implications for grafted grapevine II. Soil water, plant water relations, canopy physiology, vegetative and reproductive characteristics, grape composition, wine quality and labour requirements

Plant spacing implications for grafted grapevine II. Soil water, plant water relations, canopy physiology, vegetative and reproductive characteristics, grape composition, wine quality and labour requirements

South African Journal for Enology and Viticulture 19(2): 35-51

Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir vines grafted onto rootstock 99 Richter and grown under six plant spacings (3 X 3 m; 3 X 1,5 m; 2 X 2 m; 2 X 1 m; 1 X 1 m; 1 X 0,5 m) were investigated in terms of canopy dimension and microclimate, soil conditions, canopy physiology, vegetative and reproductive growth characteristics, grape composition, wine quality and labour input. Vines were pruned to six buds/m2 soil surface and supplementary irrigated just after pea berry size and veraison stages. The number of leaf layers, light intensity and air flow generally decreased with closer spacing, whereas relative humidity increased. In contrast to the virtually stable, albeit lower, soil water content of closer-spaced vines, that of wider spacings noticeably decreased from veraison to ripeness. This may be ascribed to the almost continuous seasonal shading of the soil in the case of the narrower spacings, and the generally higher soil temperatures found for the wider spacings. Leaf and bunch water potentials of both wider- and closer-spaced vines decreased during the ripening period. Bunches were more sensitive to water stress. Leaf and bunch water potential coincided with soil water content. The lower photosynthetic activity of closely spaced vines was accompanied by increased transpirational water loss and is mainly ascribed to less favourable canopy microclimate. Despite the supplementary irrigation and slight differences in leaf water potential between spacings, wider-spaced vines apparently grew under less water stress during the ripening period. This was also evident from leaf xylem sap abscisic acid levels at ripeness. Shoot, leaf and berry growth rates apparently increased with narrower spacing, whereas total leaf area per vine decreased. Fresh berry mass of narrow-spaced vines was, however, slightly lower at ripeness. Budding of narrow spacings increased, whereas fertility and bunch mass were reduced, resulting in decreased yield per vine. Optimum berry set and yield per hectare occurred for medium-spaced vines (2 X 2 m, 2 X 1 m); this was also evident on a m2 soil surface basis. Leaf area per fresh mass of widely spaced vines (3 X 3 m, 3 X 1,5 m) was much lower than the generally required 10 - 12 cm2 and points to overcropping. Musts of widely spaced vines had less soluble solids and titratable acidity, whereas must pH increased progressively from widely to closely spaced vines. It would seem that widely spaced vines were overcropped due to low cultivar vigour and/or low yielding capacity of the soil, eventually affecting ripening. Grapes from medium-spaced vines had higher anthocyanin levels in the skin. Sensorially, wines made from closer spacings (2 X 2 m, 2 X 1 m, 1 X 1 m, 1 X 0,5 m) scored distincly higher than those from widely spaced vines. Although yield per hectare was higher, closely spaced vines (1 X 1 m, 1 X 0,5 m) needed significantly higher inputs for canopy management, harvesting and pruning. Considering land utilisation, vine performance, wine quality as well as labour input, medium-spaced vines (2 X 2 m; 2 X 1 m) performed optimally.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 011157508

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

Related references

Plant spacing implications for grafted grapevine I. Soil characteristics, root growth, dry matter partitioning, dry matter composition and soil utilisation. South African Journal for Enology and Viticulture 19(2): 25-34, 1998

Impact of Kaolin Particle Film and Water Deficit on Wine Grape Water Use Efficiency and Plant Water Relations. HortScience 45(8): 1178-1187, 2010

Spatial Variability of Soil and Plant Water Status and Their Cascading Effects on Grapevine Physiology Are Linked to Berry and Wine Chemistry. Frontiers in Plant Science 11: 790, 2020

The effects of irrigation on the water relations of the grapevine, yield, grape and wine composition of tempranillo CV in mediterranean climate. Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin 38(1): 75-80, 2004

The effect of soil water potential, method of irrigation and nitrogen on plant water relations, canopy temperature, yield and water use of radish. Journal of Horticultural Science 62(4): 507-511, 1987

The effect of soil water potential method or irrigation and nitrogen on plant water relations canopy temperature yield and water use of radish. Journal of Horticultural Science 62(4): 507-512, 1987

Response of seed carrot to water regimes. I. Vegetative growth and plant water relations. II. Reproductive development, seed yield, and seed quality. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 115(5): 715-727, 1990

Plant water relations, radiation characteristics, canopy temperature, and yields of wheat genotypes under dry and wet soil moisture regimes. Beitrage zur Tropischen Landwirtschaft und Veterinarmedizin 21(1): 31-36, 1983

A soil-plant-atmosphere approach to evaluate the effect of irrigation/fertigation strategy on grapevine water and nutrient uptake, grape quality and yield. Acta Horticulturae 792: 297-303, 2008

Integrative Effects of Vine Water Relations and Grape Ripeness Level of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz/Richter 99. II. Grape Composition and Wine Quality. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture 35(2): 359-374, 2014

Water parasitism in plants implications for plant water relations water balance and plant plant interactions. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 73(2 Suppl): 155, 1992

Effect of nitrogen fertilization and plant population on plant water relations, canopy temperature, yield and water use efficiency of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Singapore Journal of Primary Industries 19(1): 8-15, 1991

Vegetative and Reproductive Growth Responses of Grapevine cv. 'Italia' (Vitis vinifera L.) Grafted on Different Rootstocks to Contrasting Soil Water Status. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 18(6): 1681-1692, 2016

Effects of constantly high soil water content on vegetative growth and grape quality in Japan with high rainfall during grapevine growing season. Folia Horticulturae 32(2): 135-145, 2020

Effect of irrigation on soil-plant water relations and canopy photosynthesis in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). Tropical Agriculture 70(2): 153-161, 1993