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Preemptive prophylaxis with a lipid preparation of amphotericin B for invasive fungal infections in liver transplant recipients requiring renal replacement therapy



Preemptive prophylaxis with a lipid preparation of amphotericin B for invasive fungal infections in liver transplant recipients requiring renal replacement therapy



Transplantation 71(7): 910-913



Background. Posttransplant renal replacement therapy has been shown to be an independently significant risk factor for invasive fungal infections after liver transplantation. We assessed the efficacy of a lipid preparation of amphotericin B as prophylaxis for invasive fungal infections, directed toward liver transplant recipients requiring renal replacement therapy. Methods. A total of 148 patients transplanted between 1990 and 1997 received no antifungal prophylaxis. Since 1997, 38 patients underwent liver transplantation; antifungal prophylaxis with a lipid preparation of amphotericin B was used in patients requiring renal replacement therapy. Results. Fifteen percent (22 of 148) of the patients transplanted before 1997 required renal replacement therapy. In this cohort, the incidence of invasive fungal infections (36% vs. 7%, P=0.0007) and invasive aspergillosis (14% vs. 2%, P=0.02) was significantly higher in patients who required renal replacement therapy compared with those who did not. Since 1997, 29% (11 of 38) of the patients required renal replacement therapy and received antifungal prophylaxis. Invasive fungal infections occurred in 36% (8 of 22) of the patients who received no prophylaxis (patients before 1997), and 0% (0 of 11, P=0.03) in those who received antifungal prophylaxis (since 1997). Antifungal prophylaxis was independently associated with protection from fungal infection (P=0.017). No reduction in mortality with antifungal prophylaxis was documented. Conclusion. Prophylaxis with a lipid preparation of amphotericin B was associated with a significant reduction in invasive fungal infections in high-risk liver transplant recipients, i.e., those requiring renal replacement therapy. However, no beneficial effect on survival could be documented.

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Accession: 011184529

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PMID: 11349726


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