PreproEndothelin-1 expression in human mesangial cells: evidence for a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/protein kinases-C-dependent mechanism
Foschi, M.; Sorokin, A.; Pratt, P.; McGinty, A.; Villa, G.L.; Franchi, F.; Dunn, M.J.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology Jasn 12(6): 1137-1150
ISSN/ISBN: 1046-6673 PMID: 11373337 Accession: 011189718
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of renal inflammation. This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the synergistic upregulation of preproET-1 gene expression in human mesangial cells after co-stimulation with thrombin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). Whereas thrombin induced a moderate upregulation of preproET-1 mRNA, co-stimulation with TNFalpha resulted in a strong and protracted upregulation of this mRNA species. Thrombin+TNFalpha-induced upregulation of preproET-1 expression was found to require p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinases C, whereas activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase, or intracellular Ca(2+) release were not required. Actinomycin D chase experiments suggested that enhanced stability of preproET-1 mRNA did not account for the increase in transcript levels. PreproET-1 promoter analysis demonstrated that the 5'-flanking region of preproET-1 encompassed positive regulatory elements engaged by thrombin. Negative modulation of thrombin-induced activation exerted by the distal 5' portion of preproET-1 promoter (-4.4 kbp to 204 bp) was overcome by co-stimulation with TNFalpha, providing a possible mechanism underlying the synergistic upregulation of preproET-1 expression by these two agonists. In conclusion, human mesangial cell expression of preproET-1 may be increased potently in the presence of two common proinflammatory mediators, thereby providing a potential mechanism for ET-1 production in inflammatory renal disease.