Protein hydroperoxides are a major product of low density lipoprotein oxidation during copper, peroxyl radical and macrophage-mediated oxidation
Gieseg, S.P.; Pearson, J.; Firth, C.A.
Free Radical Research 37(9): 983-991
ISSN/ISBN: 1071-5762 PMID: 14670006 DOI: 10.1080/10715760310001603612
Damage to apoB100 on low density lipoprotein (LDL) has usually been described in terms of lipid aldehyde derivatisation or fragmentation. Using a modified FOX assay, protein hydroperoxides were found to form at relatively high concentrations on apoB100 during copper, 2,2'-azobis(amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) generated peroxyl radical and cell-mediated LDL oxidation. Protein hydroperoxide formation was tightly coupled to lipid oxidation during both copper and AAPH-mediated oxidation. The protein hydroperoxide formation was inhibited by lipid soluble alpha-tocopherol and the water soluble antioxidant, 7,8-dihydroneopterin. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition strongly suggests protein hydroperoxides are formed by a lipid-derived radical generated in the lipid phase of the LDL particle during both copper and AAPH mediated oxidation. Macrophage-like THP-1 cells were found to generate significant protein hydroperoxides during cell-mediated LDL oxidation, suggesting protein hydroperoxides may form in vivo within atherosclerotic plaques. In contrast to protein hydroperoxide formation, the oxidation of tyrosine to protein bound 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (PB-DOPA) or dityrosine was found to be a relatively minor reaction. Dityrosine formation was only observed on LDL in the presence of both copper and hydrogen peroxide. The PB-DOPA formation appeared to be independent of lipid peroxidation during copper oxidation but tightly associated during AAPH-mediated LDL oxidation.