+ Site Statistics
+ Resolve Accession
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
EurekaMag Most Shared ContentMost Shared
EurekaMag PDF Full Text ContentPDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full TextRequest PDF Full Text
Submit PDF Full TextSubmit PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter
Follow on Google+Follow on Google+
Follow on LinkedInFollow on LinkedIn

+ Translate

Responses of African bovids to Pliocene climatic change

, : Responses of African bovids to Pliocene climatic change. Paleobiology 27(2 Supplement): 1-47, Spring

The record of fossil mammals from the Shungura Formation, lower Omo Valley of southern Ethiopia, represents one of the largest and most carefully controlled samples for deciphering the responses of land faunas to global-scale climatic change. We use the abundant and continuous fossil record of the family Bovidae to analyze the effects of a late Pliocene climatic shift toward increased aridity in Africa beginning at 2.8 Ma and intensifying at about 2.4 Ma. A database consisting of 4233 specimen-based records collected under well-defined procedures is used to define patterns through time in bovid abundances while also controlling for taphonomic and other potential biases. Univariate and multidimensional (correspondence analysis) methods are used to study changes in bovid abundances through time. Our results indicate that bovids experienced an increase in species richness and a rapid episode of change in taxonomic abundances at 2.8+-0.1 Ma (between Members B and C), and that this shift was followed by gradual and prolonged changes in abundance between 2.8 and 2.0 Ma (between Member C and upper Member G). An analysis of skeletal-element abundances through the Shungura sequence shows that only moderate changes in taphonomic conditions occurred between 3.0 and 2.1 Ma, when the lower Omo Valley was dominated by a large, meandering river, but that significant changes in the mode of preservation accompanied the onset of lacustrine depositional environments at 2.1 Ma (between lower and upper Member G). A juxtaposition of taxonomic with taphonomic patterns shows that the shift in taxonomic abundances at 2.8 Ma occurred in the absence of significant changes in taphonomic conditions. The main changes in bovid relative abundances and diversity appear to have been driven by broad environmental and climatic changes in Africa. As environmental indicators, bovids show a transition in the Omo at about 2.8 Ma from closed and wet environments in Member B to closed but dry environments in Member C. This drying trend intensified in Members D, E, and F, between about 2.5 and 2.3 Ma. In lower Member G, between 2.3 and 2.1 Ma, there was an increase in bovid abundance and diversity, which may be a result of greater environmental heterogeneity. The pattern of environmental change depicted by Shungura bovids is consistent with independently derived evidence of Omo paleoenvironments (from paleosols, paleoflora, and micromammals), and with regional and global evidence of climatic changes, especially acute between 2.8 and 2.3 Ma, that caused the initiation of glacial cycles in the north and drier climate in the tropics of Africa. Even though the Omo bovids showed distinct responses to large-scale climatic and environmental change, the Omo bovid community also had important attributes of long-term stability: two species, Aepyceros shungurae and Tragelaphus nakuae, dominated the community for nearly one million years. This study highlights the importance of carefully controlled collection procedures of fossil vertebrates and provides an important demonstration of the potential complexity in mode and rate of responses of land faunas to climatic change.

Order PDF Full Text


Click here to order any other PDF Full Text

Accession: 011293477

DOI: 10.1666/0094-8373(2001)027<0001:ROABTP>2.0.CO;2

PDF Full Text: Responses of African bovids to Pliocene climatic change

Submit PDF Full Text

No spam - Every submission is manually reviewed

Due to poor quality, we do not accept files from Researchgate

Submitted PDF Full Texts will always be free for everyone
(We only charge for PDFs that we need to acquire)

Select a PDF file:

Other references

Comerford, K.B.; Buchan, W.; Karakas, S.E., 2014: The effects of weight loss on FABP4 and RBP4 in obese women with metabolic syndrome. Fat accumulation is associated with the release of many novel adipokines such as retinol-binding protein 4 and fatty acid-binding protein 4. These adipokines have been linked to insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovas...

Stokkers, P.C.F.; Deley, M.; Van Der Spek, M.; Verberne, H.J.; Van Deventer, S.J.H.; Hommes, D.W., 2006: Intravenous pamidronate in combination with calcium and vitamin D: highly effective in the treatment of low bone mineral density in inflammatory bowel disease. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous pamidronate together with calcium and vitamin D supplementation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with low bone mineral density (BMD) [Netherlands]. Material and Methods: 49...

Boehler, M.; Knahr, K.; Plenk, H.; Walter, A.; Salzer, M.; Schreiber, V., 1994: Long-term results of uncemented alumina acetabular implants. We report the clinical and tribological performance of 67 ceramic acetabular prostheses implanted between 1976 and 1979 without bone cement. They articulated with ceramic femoral heads mounted on mental femoral stems. After a mean elapsed period o...

Plebani, M.., 2002: Enzymes and muscle diseases. Skeletal muscle disorders may result in release of muscle enzymes into the circulation and give increased serum enzyme activity. A variety of enzymes routinely determined in the clinical laboratory may be elevated, but creatine kinase is the enzym...

Opperhuizen A.; Gobas F.A.P.C.; Van Der Steen J.M.D.; Hutzinger O., 1988: Aqueous solubility of polychlorinated biphenyls related to molecular structure. Aqueous solubilities of polychlorinated biphenyls show a linear relationship between logarithms of aqueous activity coefficients and total surface areas (TSA) or total molecular volumes (TMV). The aqueous activity coefficients were calculated from...

Brédart, S.; Brennen, T.; Delchambre, M.; McNeill, A.; Burton, A.Mike., 2005: Naming very familiar people: when retrieving names is faster than retrieving semantic biographical information. One of the most reliable findings in the literature on person indentification is that semantic categorization of a face occurs more quickly than naming a face. Here we present two experiments in which participants are shown the faces of their coll...

Lal, H.; Williams, K.I.; Woodward, B., 1998: Comparative study of effects of ET-1, big ET-1 and SX6C in rat isolated pulmonary arteries. British Journal of Pharmacology 123(PROC SUPPL ): 291P, March

PARULKAR.G.B.; KULKARNI.T.P.; KINARE.S.G.; SEN.P.K., 1960: Aortic thrombosis causing hypertension. Case report. Report of a case of aortoiliac thrombosis is presented, the noteworthy features of the case being the extensive nature of the thrombo-obliterative disease of the aorta, and the presenting symptoms and signs of malignant hypertension due to blockag...

Reynolds, N.C.; Slocum, R.B., 2011: Rational therapy: a defense against evidence-based medicine. Movement Disorders 26(4): 567-568

Song, H.B.k; Kwon, O.K.l, 1994: Geographic variation of Acheilognathus yamatsutae from Korea and a morphological comparison with A. cyanostigma from Japan. Korean Journal of Limnology e; 27(2): 127-135 Serial Number 66