Searching for clues: tracking the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus central nervous system disease by use of an accelerated, consistent simian immunodeficiency virus macaque model
Mankowski, J.L.; Clements, J.E.; Zink, M.C.
Journal of Infectious Diseases 186(Suppl 2): S199-S208
ISSN/ISBN: 0022-1899 PMID: 12424698 DOI: 10.1086/344938
An accelerated model of human immunodeficiency virus central nervous system disease was developed in which more than 90% of infected macaques develop typical simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) encephalitis with neuronal dysfunction by postinoculation (pi) day 84. Infected macaques had replicating virus and microglial activation in the brain 10 days after inoculation; viral replication and microglial activation were suppressed at pi day 21. By pi day 56, viral recrudescence in the brain was detected in 2 of 6 infected macaques. CD4 cells were the predominant lymphocytes in the brain during acute and asymptomatic infection; cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells predominated in macaques with encephalitis. Low levels of peripheral blood NK lytic activity at pi day 10, elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 after 28 days, and high CSF viral RNA after 42 days predicted SIV encephalitis. This model is ideal to track the viral, cellular, and immunologic changes in the brain during acute and asymptomatic infection and during viral recrudescence and SIV encephalitis.