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Silicon-based metalloprotease inhibitors: synthesis and evaluation of silanol and silanediol peptide analogues as inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme



Silicon-based metalloprotease inhibitors: synthesis and evaluation of silanol and silanediol peptide analogues as inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme



Journal of the American Chemical Society 124(25): 7363-7375



Silanols are best known as unstable precursors of siloxane (silicone) polymers, substances generally considered stable and inert, but have the potential to mimic a hydrated carbonyl and inhibit protease enzymes. While previous testing of simple silanediol and silanetriol species as inhibitors of hydrolase enzymes found them ineffective, this study reports polypeptide mimics with a central methylsilanol [SiMeOH] or silanediol [Si(OH)(2)] group and their assessment as effective transition state analogue inhibitors of the well-studied metalloprotease angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Central to the synthesis strategy, phenylsilanes were employed as acid-hydrolyzable precursors of the silanol group. The N-benzoyl Leu-[SiMeOH]-Gly benzyl amides proved to be stable and readily characterized. In contrast, the Leu-[Si(OH)(2)]-Gly structure was difficult to characterize, possibly because of self-association. Capping the silanediol with chlorotrimethylsilane gave a well-defined trisiloxane, demonstrating that the silanediol was monomeric. The Leu-[Si]-Gly structures were converted to Leu-[Si]-Ala analogues by enolate alkylation. Coupling of the silanol precursors with proline tert-butyl ester gave N-benzoyl Leu-[Si]-Gly-Pro and N-benzoyl Leu-[Si]-Ala-Pro tripeptide analogues. Treatment of these with triflic acid formed the corresponding methylsilanols and silanediols, all of which were monomeric. The silanediol tripeptide mimics inhibited ACE with IC(50) values as low as 14 nM. Methylsilanols, in contrast, were poor inhibitors, with IC(50) values above 3000 nM. These data, including comparisons with inhibition data from carbon analogues, are consistent with binding of the silanediols by chelation of the ACE active site zinc, whereas the methylsilanols ligate poorly.

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Accession: 011359887

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PMID: 12071745



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