Stratospheric aerosol measurements in the Arctic winter of 1996/1997 with the M-55 Geophysika high-altitude research aircraft
Borrmann, S.; Thomas, A.; Rudakov, V.; Yushkov, V.; Lepuchov, B.; Deshler, T.; Vinnichenko, N.; Khattatov, V.; Stefanutti, L.
Tellus Series B Chemical and Physical Meteorology 52B(4): 1088-1103
ISSN/ISBN: 0280-6509 DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00100.x
In-situ aerosol measurements were performed in the northern hemispheric stratosphere up to altitudes of 21 km between 13 November 1996 and 14 January 1997, inside and outside of the polar vortex during the Airborne Polar Experiment (APE) field campaign. These are measurements of particle size distributions with a laser optical particle counter of the FSSP-300 type operated during 9 flights on the Russian M-55 high-altitude research aircraft Geophysika. For specific flights, the FSSP-300 measurements are compared with balloon-borne data (launched from Kiruna, Sweden). It was found that the stratospheric aerosol content reached levels well below the background concentrations measured by the NASA operated ER-2 in 1988/89 in the northern hemisphere. During the APE campaign, no PSC particle formation was observed at flight altitudes although the temperatures were below the NAT condensation point during one flight. The measured correlations between ozone and aerosol give an indication of the subsidence inside the 1996/97 polar vortex. Despite the lower aerosol content in the winter 1996/97 compared to the 1989 background, the heterogeneous reactivity of the aerosol (as calculated from the measured data with additional model input) is comparable. This is due to the dependency of the reactive uptake coefficients on the atmospheric water vapor content. Under the described assumptions the reaction rates on the background aerosol are significantly smaller than for competing gas phase chlorine activation, as can be expected for stratospheric background conditions especially inside the polar vortex.