The amino terminus of the fourth cytoplasmic loop of rhodopsin modulates rhodopsin-transducin interaction
Marin, E.P.; Krishna, A.G.; Zvyaga, T.A.; Isele, J.; Siebert, F.; Sakmar, T.P.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 275(3): 1930-1936
ISSN/ISBN: 0021-9258 PMID: 10636894 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.275.3.1930
Rhodopsin is a seven-transmembrane helix receptor that binds and catalytically activates the heterotrimeric G protein transducin (G(t)). This interaction involves the cytoplasmic surface of rhodopsin, which comprises four putative loops and the carboxyl-terminal tail. The fourth loop connects the carboxyl end of transmembrane helix 7 with Cys(322) and Cys(323), which are both modified by membrane-inserted palmitoyl groups. Published data on the roles of the fourth loop in the binding and activation of G(t) are contradictory. Here, we attempt to reconcile these conflicts and define a role for the fourth loop in rhodopsin-G(t) interactions. Fluorescence experiments demonstrated that a synthetic peptide corresponding to the fourth loop of rhodopsin inhibited the activation of G(t) by rhodopsin and interacted directly with the alpha subunit of G(t). A series of rhodopsin mutants was prepared in which portions of the fourth loop were replaced with analogous sequences from the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor or the m1 muscarinic receptor. Chimeric receptors in which residues 310-312 were replaced could not efficiently activate G(t). The defect in G(t) interaction in the fourth loop mutants was not affected by preventing palmitoylation of Cys(322) and Cys(323). We suggest that the amino terminus of the fourth loop interacts directly with G(t), particularly with Galpha(t), and with other regions of the intracellular surface of rhodopsin to support G(t) binding.