+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

The growth of microorganisms in propofol and mixtures of propofol and lidocaine



The growth of microorganisms in propofol and mixtures of propofol and lidocaine



Anesthesia and Analgesia 88(1): 209-212



Propofol emulsion supports bacterial growth. Extrinsic contamination of propofol has been implicated as an etiological event in postsurgical infections. When added to propofol, local anesthetics (e.g., lidocaine) alleviate the pain associated with injecting it. Because local anesthetics have antimicrobial activity, we determined whether lidocaine would inhibit microbial growth by comparing the growth of four microorganisms in propofol and in mixtures of propofol and lidocaine. Known quanta of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans were inoculated into solutions of 1% propofol, 0.2% lidocaine in propofol, 0.5% lidocaine in propofol, 0.5% lidocaine in isotonic sodium chloride solution, and 0.9% isotonic sodium chloride solution. All microorganisms were taken from stock cultures and incubated for 24 h. Growth of microorganisms in each solution was compared by counting the number of colony-forming units grown from a subculture of the solution at 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h. Propofol supported the growth of E. coli and C. albicans. Propofol maintained static levels of S. aureus and was bactericidal toward P. aeruginosa. The addition of 0.2% and 0.5% lidocaine to propofol failed to prevent the growth of the studied microorganisms. The effect of 0.5% lidocaine in isotonic sodium chloride solution did not differ from the effects of isotonic sodium chloride solution alone. We conclude that lidocaine, when added to propofol in clinically acceptable concentrations, does not exhibit antimicrobial properties. Implications: Local anesthetics such as lidocaine have antimicrobial activity. Propofol supports the growth of bacteria responsible for infection. Bacteria were added to propofol and propofol mixed with lidocaine. The addition of lidocaine to propofol in clinically relevant concentrations did not prevent the growth of bacteria. The addition of lidocaine to propofol cannot prevent infection from contaminated propofol.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 011511218

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 9895094

DOI: 10.1097/00000539-199901000-00039


Related references

Growth of Escherichia coli in propofol, lidocaine, and mixtures of propofol and lidocaine. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 43(4): 476-479, 1999

Minimum infusion rate and hemodynamic effects of propofol, propofol-lidocaine and propofol-lidocaine-ketamine in dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 39(2): 160-173, 2012

Propofol-induced injection pain: comparison of a modified propofol emulsion to standard propofol with premixed lidocaine. Anesthesia and Analgesia 99(4): 1076-9 Table of Contents, 2004

Propofol-induced injection pain: comparison of a modified propofol emulsion and standard propofol with premixed lidocaine. Anesthesia and Analgesia 100(6): 1858; Author Reply 1858-9, 2005

Propofol injection pain in children: a prospective randomized double-blind trial of a new propofol formulation versus propofol with added lidocaine. British Journal of Anaesthesia 95(2): 222-225, 2005

Comparison of Propofol-Lipuro with propofol mixed with lidocaine 10 mg on propofol injection pain. Anaesthesia 59(12): 1167-1169, 2004

Pain on injection of propofol: propofol LCT vs propofol MCT/LCT with or without lidocaine pretreatment. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 89(Suppl. 3): S86-S91, 2006

Lidocaine pretreatment with tourniquet versus lidocaine-propofol admixture for attenuating propofol injection pain: a randomized controlled trial. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 36(1): 41-45, 2011

A combination of alfentanil-lidocaine-propofol provides better intubating conditions than fentanyl-lidocaine-propofol in the absence of muscle relaxants. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 50(2): 116-120, 2003

Growth of microorganisms in propofol and methohexital mixtures. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 61(7): 818-823, 2003

Effects of fentanyl-lidocaine-propofol and dexmedetomidine-lidocaine-propofol on tracheal intubation without use of muscle relaxants. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences 26(5): 244-250, 2010

Bacteriostatic effect of mixtures of 1% propofol with 4% lidocaine versus 4% lidocaine alone: regards on microbiologic studies in the field of anesthesiology. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 35(6): 747-749, 2014

The effect of mixing lidocaine with propofol on the dose of propofol required for induction of anesthesia. Anesthesia and Analgesia 97(2): 461-4, Table of Contents, 2003

Effect of pre-mixed lidocaine with propofol on propofol injection pain in elderly patients. Masui. Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology 49(11): 1235-1238, 2000

Injection pain secondary to propofol-MCT/LCT and propofol-LCT--comparison of prophylaxis with lidocaine. Anasthesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie 38(10): 643-647, 2003