The identification of a cis-element and a trans-acting factor involved in the response to polyamines and polyamine analogues in the regulation of the human spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase gene transcription
Wang, Y.; Xiao, L.; Thiagalingam, A.; Nelkin, B.D.; Casero, R.A.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 273(51): 34623-34630
ISSN/ISBN: 0021-9258 PMID: 9852135 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.273.51.34623
The superinduction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) gene has been associated with a cytotoxic response to a new class of antineoplastic polyamine analogues. The initial mechanism of SSAT superinduction is an increase in transcription in response to analogue exposure. This increased transcription appears to be modulated through the association between a nuclear protein factor and a cis-element described here as the polyamine-responsive element (PRE). The PRE was identified as a 9-base pair sequence, 5'-TATGACTAA-3', in the context of a 31-base pair stretch from -1522 to -1492 base pairs with respect to the SSAT transcriptional start site. This element binds a nuclear factor from polyamine analogue-responsive cells, but not from polyamine analogue-insensitive cells. The labeled PRE was used to clone and identify the transcription factor, Nrf-2, that binds constitutively to the PRE sequence. Although the PRE sequence shares homology to the originally identified Nrf-2 recognition sequence, the two sequences are not identical. The Nrf-2 transcription factor appears only to be present in cell types that are capable of expressing high amounts of SSAT. The results of these studies suggest that Nrf-2, bound to the PRE, plays an important regulatory role of expression of the human SSAT gene.