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The perioperative complication rate of orthopedic surgery in sickle cell disease: Report of the national sickle cell surgery study group



The perioperative complication rate of orthopedic surgery in sickle cell disease: Report of the national sickle cell surgery study group



American Journal of Hematology 62(3): 129-138



Orthopedic disease affects the majority of sickle cell anemia patients of which aseptic necrosis of the hip is the most common, occurring in up to 50% of patients. We conducted a multicentered study to determine the perioperative complications among sickle cell patients assigned to different transfusion regimens prior to orthopedic procedures: 118 patients underwent 138 surgeries. The overall serious complication rate was 67%. The most common of these were excessive intraoperative blood loss, defined as in excess of 10% of blood volume. The next most common complication was sickle cell-related events (acute chest syndrome or vaso-occlusive crisis), which occurred in 17% of cases. While preoperative transfusion group assignment did not predict overall complication rates, higher risk procedures were associated with significantly higher rates of overall complications. Transfusion complications were experienced by 12% of the patients. Two patients died following surgery. Both deaths were a ssociated with an acute pulmonary event. The 52 patients undergoing hip replacements experienced the highest rate of complications with excessive intraoperative blood loss occurring in the majority of patients. Sickle cell-related events occurred in 19% of patients, and surgical complications occurred after 15% of hip replacements and included postoperative hemorrhage, dislocated prosthesis, wound abscess, and rupture of the femoral prosthesis. There were twenty-two hip coring procedures. Acute chest syndrome occurred in 14% of the patients. Overall, decompression coring was a safer, shorter operation. A randomized prospective trial to determine the perioperative and long-term efficacy of core decompression for avascular necrosis of the hip in sickle cell disease is needed. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a high rate of perioperative complications despite compliance with sickle cell perioperative care guidelines. Pulmonary complications and transfusion reactions were common. Thi s study supports the results previously published by the National Preoperative Transfusion in Sickle Cell Disease Group. These results stated that a conservative preoperative transfusion regimen to bring hemoglobin concentration to between 9 and 11 g/dl was as effective as an aggressive transfusion regimen in which the hemoglobin S level was lowered to 30%.

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Accession: 011532228

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 10539878

DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1096-8652(199911)62:3<129::aid-ajh1>3.0.co;2-j



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