Section 12

EurekaMag PDF full texts Chapter 11,575


Dernoeden, Peter H. 2000: Tolerance of four Festuca species to ethofumesate and prodiamine. Hortscience 35(6): 1170-1173
Du, X.; Cai, J.; Zhou, J.-Zhong; Stevens, V., L.; Low, M., G. 2002: Tolerance of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-specific phospholipase D overexpression by Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants with aberrant GPI biosynthesis. Biochemical Journal 361(1): 113-118
Gocheva, L.; Todorov, J.; Danon, S. 1999: Tolerance of half-body irradiation as systemic therapy for patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Medical and Pediatric Oncology 33(6): 558-562
Park, S-Jin.; Oh, S-Ja.; Chung, J-Woong.; Chun, M-Hoon. 2002: Tolerance of horizontal cells to excitotoxicity in the developing FVB/N mouse retina. Neuroreport 13(16): 2091-2095
Duthois, S.; Cailleux, N.; Benosman, B.; Lévesque, H. 2003: Tolerance of iloprost and results of treatment of chronic severe lower limb ischaemia in diabetic patients. A retrospective study of 64 consecutive cases. Diabetes and Metabolism 29(1): 36-43
Qun, J.; Shanjing, Y.; Lehe, M. 2002: Tolerance of immobilized baker's yeast in organic solvents. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 30(6): 721-725
Sawada, T.; Asanuma, Y.; Furuya, T.; Saito, K.; Koyama, K. 1999: Tolerance of islet allografts induced by orthotopic liver transplantation. Journal of Surgical Research 85(2): 209-216
Milano, Giuseppina; Corno, Antonio, F.; De-Jong, Jan-Willem; Von-Segesser, Ludwig, K.; Samaja, Michele 2001: Tolerance of isolated rat hearts to low-flow ischemia and hypoxia of increasing duration: Protective role of down-regulation and ATP during ischemia. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 226(1-2): 141-151
García, M.Victoria.; López-Mediavilla, C.; Juanes de la Peña, Mía.C.; Medina, Jé.M. 2003: Tolerance of neonatal rat brain to acute hyperammonemia. Brain Research 973(1): 31-38
Texier, A.C.; Gomez, J. 2002: Tolerance of nitrifying sludge to p-cresol. Biotechnology Letters 24(4): 321-324
Onimaru, R.; Shirato, H.; Shimizu, S.; Kitamura, K.; Xu, B.; Fukumoto, S-ichi.; Chang, T-Chen.; Fujita, K.; Oita, M.; Miyasaka, K.; Nishimura, M.; Dosaka-Akita, H. 2003: Tolerance of organs at risk in small-volume, hypofractionated, image-guided radiotherapy for primary and metastatic lung cancers. International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics 56(1): 126-135
Gombotz, H.; Schatz, E. 2002: Tolerance of perisurgical anaemia. Infusion Therapy and Transfusion Medicine 29(3): 163-166
Ohmura, T.; Ueda, T.; Hashimoto, Y.; Imoto, T. 2001: Tolerance of point substitution of methionine for isoleucine in hen egg white lysozyme. Protein Engineering 14(6): 421-425
Demchenko, A.P.; Chinarov, V.A. 1999: Tolerance of protein structures to the changes of amino acid sequences and their interactions. The nature of the folding code. Protein and Peptide Letters 6(3): 115-129
Gassel, H.J.; Otto, C.; Gassel, A.M.; Meyer, D.; Steger, U.; Timmermann, W.; Ulrichs, K.; Thiede, A. 2000: Tolerance of rat liver allografts induced by short-term selective immunosuppression combining monoclonal antibodies directed against CD25 and CD54 with subtherapeutic cyclosporine. Transplantation 69(6): 1058-1067
Koenning, S.R.; Barker, K.R.; Bowman, D.T. 2000: Tolerance of Selected Cotton Lines to Rotylenchulus reniformis. Journal of Nematology 32(4s): 519-523
Sullivan, S.E.; Calhoun, D.A.; Maheshwari, A.; Ashmeade, T.L.; Auerbach, D.A.; Hudak, M.L.; Beltz, S.E.; Christensen, R.D. 2002: Tolerance of simulated amniotic fluid in premature neonates. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 36(10): 1518-1524
South, D.B. 2000: Tolerance of southern pine seedlings to clopyralid. Southern journal of applied forestry 24(1): 51-56
Debodinance, P.; Cosson, M.; Burlet, G. 1999: Tolerance of synthetic tissues in touch with vaginal scars: Review to the point of 287 cases. European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 87(1): 23-30
Kouril, J.; Hamackova, J.; Kozak, P. 1998: Tolerance of tench Tinca tinca (L.) eggs to baths in malachite green and iodine-detergent preparations. Polskie Archiwum Hydrobiologii 45(3): 439-446
Sandberg Kilpi, E.; Vismann, B.; Hagerman, L. 1999: Tolerance of the Baltic amphipod Monoporeia affinis to hypoxia, anoxia and hydrogen sulfide. Ophelia 50(1): 61-68
Kurata, M. 2000: Tolerance of the Japanese littleneck clam Ruditapes philippinarum to low salinity and dissolved oxygen at low temperatures. Scientific Reports of Hokkaido Fisheries Experimental Station 58: 17-21
Qiu, J.W.; Qian, P.Y. 1999: Tolerance of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite amphitrite to salinity and temperature stress: Effects of previous experience. Marine Ecology Progress Series 188: 123-132
Joseph, I.; Panigrahi, A.; Chandra, P Kishore 2000: Tolerance of three marine microalgae to cryoprotectants dimethyl sulfoxide, methanol and glycerol. Indian Journal of: 243-247
Spierer, M.M.; Alektiar, K.M.; Zelefsky, M.J.; Brennan, M.F.; Cordiero, P.G. 2003: Tolerance of tissue transfers to adjuvant radiation therapy in primary soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity. International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics 56(4): 1112-1116
Lu, Z.; Yu, X.; Chen, J.; Zheng, X.; Tang, J. 2000: Tolerance of various geographic populations of brown planthopper to adverse environmental stresses. Yingyong Shengtai Xuebao ; 11(5): 745-748
Baughman, T.A.; Grichar, W.J.; Jordan, D.L. 2002: Tolerance of virginia-type peanut to different application timings of 2,4-DB. Peanut Science 29(2): 126-128
Varsamos, S. 2002: Tolerance range and osmoregulation in hypersaline conditions in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 82(6): 1047-1048
Huth, W. 2000: Tolerance to BYDV: Factors influencing reactions of plants on infections. Zeitschrift fuer Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz 107(4): 415-426
Altamirano, F.E.; Correa, N.; Rosas, S.B. 2000: Tolerance to Mn and Al by soybean rhizobacteria. Phyton (Buenos Aires) 66: 39-42
Fredriksson, A.; Palomo, T.; Chase, T.; Archer, T. 1999: Tolerance to a suprathreshold dose of L-Dopa in MPTP mice: Effects of glutamate antagonists. Journal of Neural Transmission 106(3-4): 283-300
Rosseland, B.O.; Kroglund, F.; Staurnes, M.; Hindar, K.; Kvellestad, A. 2001: Tolerance to acid water among strains and life stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Water Air and Soil Pollution 130(1-4 Part 2): 899-904
Knott, T.K.; Dayanithi, G.; Coccia, V.; Custer, E.E.; Lemos, J.R.; Treistman, S.N. 2000: Tolerance to acute ethanol inhibition of peptide hormone release in the isolated neurohypophysis. Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 24(7): 1077-1083
Wolgin, D.L.; Jakubow, J.J. 2003: Tolerance to amphetamine hypophagia: a microstructural analysis of licking behavior in the rat. Behavioral Neuroscience 117(1): 95-104
Ohmori, S.; Fang, L.; Kawase, M.; Saito, S.; Morimoto, Y. 2001: Tolerance to analgesia and dependence liability by topical application of dihydroetorphine to hairless rats. European Journal of Pharmacology 423(2-3): 157-166
Przegaliński, E.; Tatarczyńska, E.; Kłodzińska, A.; Chojnacka-Wójcik, E. 1999: Tolerance to anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of a partial agonist of glycineB receptors. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 64(3): 461-466
Tariq, M.; Khan, H.A.; Moutaery, K.A.; Deeb, S.A. 1999: Tolerance to beta,beta'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN)-induced neurobehavioural and vestibular toxicity in diabetic rats. Journal of Applied Toxicology: Jat 19(2): 93-99
Hancox, R.J.; Aldridge, R.E.; Cowan, J.O.; Flannery, E.M.; Herbison, G.P.; McLachlan, C.R.; Town, G.I.; Taylor, D.R. 1999: Tolerance to beta-agonists during acute bronchoconstriction. European Respiratory Journal 14(2): 283-287
Hamdoun, A.M.; Griffin, F.J.; Cherr, G.N. 2002: Tolerance to biodegraded crude oil in marine invertebrate embryos and larvae is associated with expression of a multixenobiotic resistance transporter. Aquatic Toxicology 61(1-2): 127-140
Coyle, P.; Niezing, G.; Shelton, T.L.; Philcox, J.C.; Rofe, A.M. 2000: Tolerance to cadmium hepatotoxicity by metallothionein and zinc: In vivo and in vitro studies with MT-null mice. Toxicology 150(1-3): 53-67
Ivanova, E.P.; Kurilenko, V.V.; Kurilenko, A.V.; Gorshkova, N.M.; Shubin, F.N.; Nicolau, D.V.; Chelomin, V.P. 2002: Tolerance to cadmium of free-living and associated with marine animals and eelgrass marine gamma-proteobacteria. Current Microbiology 44(5): 357-362
Richardson, G.S.; Roehrs, T.A.; Rosenthal, L.; Koshorek, G.; Roth, T. 2002: Tolerance to daytime sedative effects of H1 antihistamines. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 22(5): 511-515
Vekovischeva, O.; Uusi-Oukari, M.; Korpi, E.R. 2003: Tolerance to diazepam-induced motor impairment: a study with GABAA receptor alpha6 subunit knockout mice. Neurochemical Research 28(5): 757-764
Kari, O.; Teir, H.; Huuskonen, R.; Boström, C.; Lemola, R. 2001: Tolerance to different kinds of contact lenses in young atopic and non-atopic wearers. Clao Journal: Official Publication of the Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists Inc 27(3): 151-154
Komazawa, Y.; Adachi, K.; Mihara, T.; Ono, M.; Kawamura, A.; Fujishiro, H.; Kinoshita, Y. 2003: Tolerance to famotidine and ranitidine treatment after 14 days of administration in healthy subjects without Helicobacter pylori infection. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 18(6): 678-682
Mora, C.; Ospina, A.F. 2001: Tolerance to high temperatures and potential impact of sea warming on reef fishes of Gorgona Island (tropical eastern Pacific). Marine Biology (Berlin) 139(4): 765-769
Tabo, T.; Horiuchi, T.; Uchinami, M.; Kimura, N. 2002: Tolerance to intermittent ischemia of damaged rat liver by thioacetamide. Hepato-Gastroenterology 49(47): 1329-1332
Hugues, Séphanie.; Mougneau, E.; Ferlin, W.; Jeske, D.; Hofman, P.; Homann, D.; Beaudoin, L.; Schrike, C.; Von Herrath, M.; Lehuen, Aès.; Glaichenhaus, N. 2002: Tolerance to islet antigens and prevention from diabetes induced by limited apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells. Immunity 16(2): 169-181
Stobbe, I.; Duinkerken, G.; van Rood, J.J.; Lernmark, A.; Keymeulen, B.; Pipeleers, D.; De Vries, R.R.; Glass, F.H.; Roep, B.O. 1999: Tolerance to kidney allograft transplanted into Type I diabetic patients persists after in vivo challenge with pancreatic islet allografts that express repeated mismatches. Diabetologia 42(11): 1379-1380
Alves-Rosa, F.; Beigier-Bompadre, M.; Fernández, G.; Barrionuevo, P.; Mari, L.; Palermo, M.; Isturiz, M. 2001: Tolerance to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) regulates the endotoxin effects on Shiga toxin-2 lethality. Immunology Letters 76(2): 125-131
Almeida, M.C.; Trevisan, F.N.; Barros, R.C.; Carnio, E.C.; Branco, L.G. 1999: Tolerance to lipopolysaccharide is related to the nitric oxide pathway. Neuroreport 10(14): 3061-3065
Rukke, Nina Alstad 2002: Tolerance to low ambient calcium shows inter-population differences in Daphnia galeata. Journal of Plankton Research ; 24(5): 527-531
Irvine, E.E.; Cheeta, S.; Lovelock, C.; File, S.E. 2001: Tolerance to midazolam's anxiolytic effects after short-term nicotine treatment. Neuropharmacology 40(5): 710-716
Wang, Z.; Sadée, W. 2000: Tolerance to morphine at the mu-opioid receptor differentially induced by cAMP-dependent protein kinase activation and morphine. European Journal of Pharmacology 389(2-3): 165-171
D'Anci, K.E. 1999: Tolerance to morphine-induced antinociception is decreased by chronic sucrose or polycose intake. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 63(1): 1-11
Bourget, J.L.; Mathes, D.W.; Nielsen, G.P.; Randolph, M.A.; Tanabe, Y.N.; Ferrara, V.R.; Wu, A.; Arn, S.; Sachs, D.H.; Lee, W.P. 2001: Tolerance to musculoskeletal allografts with transient lymphocyte chimerism in miniature swine. Transplantation 71(7): 851-856
Irvine, E.E.; Cheeta, S.; File, S.E. 2001: Tolerance to nicotine's effects in the elevated plus-maze and increased anxiety during withdrawal. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 68(2): 319-325
Fink, B.; Schwemmer, M.; Fink, N.; Bassenge, E. 1999: Tolerance to nitrates with enhanced radical formation suppressed by carvedilol. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 34(6): 800-805
Tortorici, V.; Morgan, M.M.; Vanegas, H. 2001: Tolerance to repeated microinjection of morphine into the periaqueductal gray is associated with changes in the behavior of off- and on-cells in the rostral ventromedial medulla of rats. Pain 89(2-3): 237-244
Heishman, S.J.; Henningfield, J.E. 2000: Tolerance to repeated nicotine administration on performance, subjective, and physiological responses in nonsmokers. Psychopharmacology 152(3): 321-333
Bowes, T.; Wagner, E.R.; Boffey, J.; Nicholl, D.; Cochrane, L.; Benboubetra, M.; Conner, J.; Furukawa, K.; Furukawa, K.; Willison, H.J. 2002: Tolerance to self gangliosides is the major factor restricting the antibody response to lipopolysaccharide core oligosaccharides in Campylobacter jejuni strains associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Infection and Immunity 70(9): 5008-5018
Barr, A.M.; Song, C.; Sawada, K.; Young, C.E.; Honer, W.G.; Phillips, A.G. 2003: Tolerance to the anhedonic effects of lipopolysaccharide is associated with changes in syntaxin immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 6(1): 23-34
Członkowska, A.I.; Krzaścik, P.; Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, H.; Siemiatkowski, M.; Szyndler, J.; Maciejak, P.; Bidziński, A.; Płaźnik, A. 2001: Tolerance to the anticonvulsant activity of midazolam and allopregnanolone in a model of picrotoxin seizures. European Journal of Pharmacology 425(2): 121-127
Krupp, E.; Heynen, T.; Li, X.L.; Post, R.M.; Weiss, S.R. 2000: Tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects of lamotrigine on amygdala kindled seizures: cross-tolerance to carbamazepine but not valproate or diazepam. Experimental Neurology 162(2): 278-289
Brigatte, P.; Hoffmann, F.A.; Bernardi, M.M.; Giorgi, R.; Fernandes, I.; Takehara, H.A.; Barros, S.B.; Almeida, M.G.; Cury, Y. 2001: Tolerance to the antinociceptive effect of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom in mice is mediated by pharmacodynamic mechanisms. Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology 39(9): 1399-1410
Tortorici, V.; Robbins, C.S.; Morgan, M.M. 1999: Tolerance to the antinociceptive effect of morphine microinjections into the ventral but not lateral-dorsal periaqueductal gray of the rat. Behavioral Neuroscience 113(4): 833-839
Cockcroft, D.W.; Davis, B.E.; Swystun, V.A.; Marciniuk, D.D. 1999: Tolerance to the bronchoprotective effect of beta2-agonists: comparison of the enantiomers of salbutamol with racemic salbutamol and placebo. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 103(6): 1049-1053
Delatte, M.S.; Winsauer, P.J.; Moerschbaecher, J.M. 2002: Tolerance to the disruptive effects of Delta(9)-THC on learning in rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 74(1): 129-140
Miller, M.L.; Brodkorb, G.W.; Branch, M.N. 2001: Tolerance to the effects of cocaine on performance under behavior-correlated reinforcement magnitude. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 76(2): 217-234
Van Sassenbroeck, D.K.; De Paepe, P.; Belpaire, F.M.; Boon, P.A.; Buylaert, W.A. 2003: Tolerance to the hypnotic and electroencephalographic effect of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in the rat: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 55(5): 609-615
Hampson, R.E.; Simeral, J.D.; Kelly, E.J.; Deadwyler, S.A. 2003: Tolerance to the memory disruptive effects of cannabinoids involves adaptation by hippocampal neurons. Hippocampus 13(5): 543-556
Cartmell, J.; Monn, J.A.; Schoepp, D.D. 2000: Tolerance to the motor impairment, but not to the reversal of PCP-induced motor activities by oral administration of the mGlu2/3 receptor agonist, LY379268. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 361(1): 39-46
Flåøyen, A.; Hove, K.; Wilkins, A.L. 2001: Tolerance to the nephrotoxic component of Narthecium ossifragum in sheep: the effects of repeated oral doses of plant extracts. Veterinary Research Communications 25(2): 127-136
Riddle, E.L.; Kokoshka, J.M.; Wilkins, D.G.; Hanson, G.R.; Fleckenstein, A.E. 2002: Tolerance to the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine in young rats. European Journal of Pharmacology 435(2-3): 181-185
Parker, J.D.; Gori, T. 2001: Tolerance to the organic nitrates: new ideas, new mechanisms, continued mystery. Circulation 104(19): 2263-2265
Giannini, D.; Di Franco, A.; Bacci, E.; Dente, F.L.; Bartoli, M.L.; Vagaggini, B.; Paggiaro, P. 2001: Tolerance to the protective effect of salmeterol on allergen challenge can be partially restored by the withdrawal of salmeterol regular treatment. Chest 119(6): 1671-1675
Bonavita, C.D.; Bisagno, V.; Bonelli, C.G.; Acosta, G.B.; Rubio, M.C.; Wikinski, S.I. 2002: Tolerance to the sedative effect of lorazepam correlates with a diminution in cortical release and affinity for glutamate. Neuropharmacology 42(5): 619-625
Hidalgo, M.; Castaneda, E.; Arias, C.A. 2003: Tolerance to vancomycin in a multiresistant, Colombian isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Journal of Antimicrobial ChemoTherapy 52(2): 300-302
De, J.; Ramaiah, N.; Mesquita, A.; Verlekar, X.N. 2003: Tolerance to various toxicants by marine bacteria highly resistant to mercury. Marine Biotechnology 5(2): 185-193
Grohmann, U.; Fallarino, F.; Puccetti, P. 2003: Tolerance, DCs and tryptophan: Much ado about IDO. Trends in Immunology 24(5): 242-248
de la Tribonnière, X.; Dufresne, M.D.; Alfandari, S.; Fontier, C.; Sobazek, A.; Valette, M.; Ajana, F.; Gerard, Y.; Maulin, L.; Bourez, J.M.; Baclet, V.; Senneville, E.; Vermersh, A.; Mouton, Y. 1998: Tolerance, compliance and psychological consequences of post-exposure prophylaxis in health-care workers. International Journal of Std and Aids 9(10): 591-594
Field, E.H.; Strober, S. 2001: Tolerance, mixed chimerism and protection against graft-versus-host disease after total lymphoid irradiation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B Biological Sciences 356(1409): 739-748
Brambrink, A.M.; Schneider, A.; Noga, H.; Astheimer, A.; Götz, B.; Körner, I.; Heimann, A.; Welschof, M.; Kempski, O. 2000: Tolerance-Inducing dose of 3-nitropropionic acid modulates bcl-2 and bax balance in the rat brain: a potential mechanism of chemical preconditioning. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism: Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 20(10): 1425-1436
Sachs, D.H. 2003: Tolerance: of mice and men. Journal of Clinical Investigation 111(12): 1819-1821
Venselaar, J.; Welleweerd, H.; Mijnheer, B. 2001: Tolerances for the accuracy of photon beam dose calculations of treatment planning systems. RadioTherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology 60(2): 191-201
Hikosaka, K. 1999: Tolerances of responses to visual patterns in neurons of the posterior inferotemporal cortex in the macaque against changing stimulus size and orientation, and deleting patterns. Behavioural Brain Research 100(1-2): 67-76
Quesada, M.; Mcmanus, C.; Couto, F.-Augusto-D'araujo 2001: Tolerancia ao calor de duas racas de ovinos deslanados no Distrito Federal. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 30(3 Suppl 1): 1021-1026
Garcia-Dorado, Aurora 2003: Tolerant versus sensitive genomes: The impact of deleterious mutation on fitness and conservation. Conservation Genetics 4(3): 311-324
Belisle, P.; Chapais, B. 2001: Tolerated co-feeding in relation to degree of kinship in Japanese macaques. Behaviour il; 138(4): 487-509
Li, W.; Jaroszewski, L.; Godzik, A. 2002: Tolerating some redundancy significantly speeds up clustering of large protein databases. Bioinformatics 18(1): 77-82
Huseby, E.S.; Goverman, J. 2000: Tolerating the nervous system: a delicate balance. Journal of Experimental Medicine 191(5): 757-760
Holbrook, F.L.; Nicholson, I.C.; Zola, H. 2002: Tolerization as a tool for generating novel monoclonal antibodies. Immunology and Cell Biology 80(4): 319-322
Lebrón, J.A.; Shen, H.; Bjorkman, P.J.; Ou, S. 1999: Tolerization of adult mice to immunodominant proteins before monoclonal antibody production. Journal of Immunological Methods 222(1-2): 59-63
Adorini, L.; Penna, G.; Giarratana, N.; Uskokovic, M. 2003: Tolerogenic dendritic cells induced by vitamin D receptor ligands enhance regulatory T cells inhibiting allograft rejection and autoimmune diseases. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 88(2): 227-233
Starzl, T.E.; Murase, N.; Abu-Elmagd, K.; Gray, E.A.; Shapiro, R.; Eghtesad, B.; Corry, R.J.; Jordan, M.L.; Fontes, P.; Gayowski, T.; Bond, G.; Scantlebury, V.P.; Potdar, S.; Randhawa, P.; Wu, T.; Zeevi, A.; Nalesnik, M.A.; Woodward, J.; Marcos, A.; Trucco, M.; Demetris, A.J.; Fung, J.J. 2003: Tolerogenic immunosuppression for organ transplantation. Lancet 361(9368): 1502-1510
Cooke, A.; Phillips, J.M.; Parish, N.M. 2001: Tolerogenic strategies to halt or prevent type I diabetes. Nature Immunology 2(9): 810-815
Krymchantowski, A.V.; Adriano, M.; Fernandes, D. 1999: Tolfenamic acid decreases migraine recurrence when used with sumatriptan. Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache 19(3): 186-187
Bilak, H.; Tauszig-Delamasure, S.; Imler, J-L. 2003: Toll and Toll-like receptors in Drosophila. Biochemical Society Transactions 31(Pt 3): 648-651
Pasare, C.; Medzhitov, R. 2003: Toll pathway-dependent blockade of CD4+CD25+ T cell-mediated suppression by dendritic cells. Science 299(5609): 1033-1036
Meng, X.; Khanuja, B.S.; Ip, Y.T. 1999: Toll receptor-mediated Drosophila immune response requires Dif, an NF-kappaB factor. Genes and Development 13(7): 792-797
Imler, J.L.; Hoffmann, J.A. 2001: Toll receptors in innate immunity. Trends in Cell Biology 11(7): 304-311
Fotiadou Pappa, E. 2002: Toll receptors were first discovered in Drosophila fruit fly. Deltion Ellenikes Mikrobiologikes Etaireias 47(2): 166-173
Dobrovolskaia, M.A.; Vogel, S.N. 2002: Toll receptors, CD14, and macrophage activation and deactivation by LPS. Microbes and Infection 4(9): 903-914
Schuster, J.M.; Nelson, P.S. 2000: Toll receptors: an expanding role in our understanding of human disease. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 67(6): 767-773
Sabroe, I.; Jones, E.C.; Usher, L.R.; Whyte, M.K.B.; Dower, S.K. 2002: Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 in human peripheral blood granulocytes: A critical role for monocytes in leukocyte lipopolysaccharide responses. Journal of Immunology 168(9): 4701-4710
Spitzer, J.H.; Visintin, A.; Mazzoni, A.; Kennedy, M.N.; Segal, D.M. 2002: Toll-like receptor 1 inhibits Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in endothelial cells. European Journal of Immunology 32(4): 1182-1187
Re, F.; Strominger, J.L. 2001: Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 differentially activate human dendritic cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276(40): 37692-37699
Varadaradjalou, S.; Féger, Fédéric.; Thieblemont, N.; Hamouda, N.Ben.; Pleau, J-Marie.; Dy, M.; Arock, M. 2003: Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 differentially activate human mast cells. European Journal of Immunology 33(4): 899-906
Equils, O.; Schito, M.L.; Karahashi, H.; Madak, Z.; Yarali, A.; Michelsen, K.S.; Sher, A.; Arditi, M. 2003: Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR9 signaling results in HIV-long terminal repeat trans-activation and HIV replication in HIV-1 transgenic mouse spleen cells: implications of simultaneous activation of TLRs on HIV replication. Journal of Immunology 170(10): 5159-5164
Vasselon, T.; Hanlon, W.A.; Wright, S.D.; Detmers, P.A. 2002: Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) mediates activation of stress-activated MAP kinase p38. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 71(3): 503-510
Carl, V.S.; Brown-Steinke, K.; Nicklin, M.J.H.; Smith, M.F. 2002: Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) agonists differentially regulate secretory interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene expression in macrophages. Journal of Biological Chemistry 277(20): 17448-17456
Mita, Y.; Dobashi, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Nakazawa, T.; Mori, M. 2001: Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 surface expressions on human monocytes are modulated by interferon-gamma and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Immunology Letters 78(2): 97-101
Shimizu, H.; Matsuguchi, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Nakano, I.; Hayakawa, T.; Takeuchi, O.; Akira, S.; Umemura, M.; Suda, T.; Yoshikai, Y. 2002: Toll-like receptor 2 contributes to liver injury by Salmonella infection through Fas ligand expression on NKT cells in mice. Gastroenterology 123(4): 1265-1277
Lien, E.; Sellati, T.J.; Yoshimura, A.; Flo, T.H.; Rawadi, G.; Finberg, R.W.; Carroll, J.D.; Espevik, T.; Ingalls, R.R.; Radolf, J.D.; Golenbock, D.T. 1999: Toll-like receptor 2 functions as a pattern recognition receptor for diverse bacterial products. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274(47): 33419-33425
Droemann, D.; Goldmann, T.; Branscheid, D.; Clark, R.; Dalhoff, K.; Zabel, P.; Vollmer, E. 2003: Toll-like receptor 2 is expressed by alveolar epithelial cells type II and macrophages in the human lung. Histochemistry and Cell Biology 119(2): 103-108
Deiters, U.; Gumenscheimer, M.; Galanos, C.; Mühlradt, P.F. 2003: Toll-like receptor 2- and 6-mediated stimulation by macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2 induces lipopolysaccharide (LPS) cross tolerance in mice, which results in protection from tumor necrosis factor alpha but in only partial protection from lethal LPS doses. Infection and Immunity 71(8): 4456-4462
Echchannaoui, H.; Frei, K.; Schnell, C.; Leib, S.L.; Zimmerli, W.; Landmann, R. 2002: Toll-like receptor 2-deficient mice are highly susceptible to Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis because of reduced bacterial clearing and enhanced inflammation. Journal of Infectious Diseases 186(6): 798-806
Arbibe, L.; Mira, J.P.; Teusch, N.; Kline, L.; Guha, M.; Mackman, N.; Godowski, P.J.; Ulevitch, R.J.; Knaus, U.G. 2000: Toll-like receptor 2-mediated NF-kappaB activation requires a Rac1-dependent pathway. Nature Immunology 1(6): 533-540
Doyle, S.E.; O'Connell, R.; Vaidya, S.A.; Chow, E.K.; Yee, K.; Cheng, G. 2003: Toll-like receptor 3 mediates a more potent antiviral response than Toll-like receptor 4. Journal of Immunology 170(7): 3565-3571
Lorenz, E.; Patel, D.D.; Hartung, T.; Schwartz, D.A. 2002: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-deficient murine macrophage cell line as an in vitro assay system to show TLR4-independent signaling of Bacteroides fragilis lipopolysaccharide. Infection and Immunity 70(9): 4892-4896
Schilling, D.; Thomas, K.; Nixdorff, K.; Vogel, S.N.; Fenton, M.J. 2002: Toll-like receptor 4 and Toll-IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter protein (TIRAP)/myeloid differentiation protein 88 adapter-like (Mal) contribute to maximal IL-6 expression in macrophages. Journal of Immunology 169(10): 5874-5880
Kiechl, S.; Wiedermann, C.J.; Willeit, J. 2003: Toll-like receptor 4 and atherogenesis. Annals of Medicine 35(3): 164-171
Abel, B.; Thieblemont, N.; Quesniaux, V.J.F.; Brown, N.; Mpagi, J.; Miyake, K.; Bihl, F.; Ryffel, B. 2002: Toll-like receptor 4 expression is required to control chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice. Journal of Immunology 169(6): 3155-3162
Kalis, C.; Kanzler, B.; Lembo, A.; Poltorak, A.; Galanos, C.; Freudenberg, M.A. 2003: Toll-like receptor 4 expression levels determine the degree of LPS-susceptibility in mice. European Journal of Immunology 33(3): 798-805
Lien, E.; Means, T.K.; Heine, H.; Yoshimura, A.; Kusumoto, S.; Fukase, K.; Fenton, M.J.; Oikawa, M.; Qureshi, N.; Monks, B.; Finberg, R.W.; Ingalls, R.R.; Golenbock, D.T. 2000: Toll-like receptor 4 imparts ligand-specific recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Journal of Clinical Investigation 105(4): 497-504
Uesugi, T.; Froh, M.; Arteel, G.E.; Bradford, B.U.; Thurman, R.G. 2001: Toll-like receptor 4 is involved in the mechanism of early alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Hepatology 34(1): 101-108
Lettinga, K.D.; Florquin, S.; Speelman, P.; van Ketel, R.; van der Poll, T.; Verbon, A. 2002: Toll-like receptor 4 is not involved in host defense against pulmonary Legionella pneumophila infection in a mouse model. Journal of Infectious Diseases 186(4): 570-573
Rescigno, M.; Urbano, M.; Rimoldi, M.; Valzasina, B.; Rotta, G.; Granucci, F.; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, P. 2002: Toll-like receptor 4 is not required for the full maturation of dendritic cells or for the degradation of Gram-negative bacteria. European Journal of Immunology 32(10): 2800-2806
Dabbagh, K.; Dahl, M.E.; Stepick-Biek, P.; Lewis, D.B. 2002: Toll-like receptor 4 is required for optimal development of Th2 immune responses: role of dendritic cells. Journal of Immunology 168(9): 4524-4530
Paik, Y.-H.; Schwabe, R.F.; Bataller, R.ón.; Russo, M.P.; Jobin, C.; Brenner, D.A. 2003: Toll-like receptor 4 mediates inflammatory signaling by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in human hepatic stellate cells. Hepatology 37(5): 1043-1055
Wang, X.; Moser, C.; Louboutin, J-Pierre.; Lysenko, E.S.; Weiner, D.J.; Weiser, J.N.; Wilson, J.M. 2002: Toll-like receptor 4 mediates innate immune responses to Haemophilus influenzae infection in mouse lung. Journal of Immunology 168(2): 810-815
Kawahara, T.; Kuwano, Y.; Teshima-Kondo, S.; Kawai, T.; Nikawa, T.; Kishi, K.; Rokutan, K. 2001: Toll-like receptor 4 regulates gastric pit cell responses to Helicobacter pylori infection. Journal of Medical Investigation: Jmi 48(3-4): 190-197
Hornef, M.W.; Frisan, T.; Vandewalle, A.; Normark, S.; Richter-Dahlfors, A. 2002: Toll-like receptor 4 resides in the Golgi apparatus and colocalizes with internalized lipopolysaccharide in intestinal epithelial cells. Journal of Experimental Medicine 195(5): 559-570
Vogel, S.N.; Fenton, M. 2003: Toll-like receptor 4 signalling: new perspectives on a complex signal-transduction problem. Biochemical Society Transactions 31(Pt 3): 664-668
Mita, Y.; Dobashi, K.; Endou, K.; Kawata, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Nakazawa, T.; Mori, M. 2002: Toll-like receptor 4 surface expression on human monocytes and B cells is modulated by IL-2 and IL-4. Immunology Letters 81(1): 71-75
Gomi, K.; Kawasaki, K.; Kawai, Y.; Shiozaki, M.; Nishijima, M. 2002: Toll-like receptor 4-MD-2 complex mediates the signal transduction induced by flavolipin, an amino acid-containing lipid unique to Flavobacterium meningosepticum. Journal of Immunology 168(6): 2939-2943
Kamath, A.B.; Alt, J.; Debbabi, H.; Behar, S.M. 2003: Toll-like receptor 4-defective C3H/HeJ mice are not more susceptible than other C3H substrains to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infection and Immunity 71(7): 4112-4118
Hou, L.; Sasaki, H.; Stashenko, P. 2000: Toll-like receptor 4-deficient mice have reduced bone destruction following mixed anaerobic infection. Infection and Immunity 68(8): 4681-4687
Biragyn, A.; Ruffini, P.Adelchi.; Leifer, C.A.; Klyushnenkova, E.; Shakhov, A.; Chertov, O.; Shirakawa, A.K.; Farber, J.M.; Segal, D.M.; Oppenheim, J.J.; Kwak, L.W. 2002: Toll-like receptor 4-dependent activation of dendritic cells by beta-defensin 2. Science 298(5595): 1025-1029
McCurdy, J.D.; Lin, T.J.; Marshall, J.S. 2001: Toll-like receptor 4-mediated activation of murine mast cells. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 70(6): 977-984
Higgins, S.C.; Lavelle, E.C.; McCann, C.; Keogh, B.; McNeela, E.; Byrne, P.; O'Gorman, B.; Jarnicki, A.; McGuirk, P.; Mills, K.H.G. 2003: Toll-like receptor 4-mediated innate IL-10 activates antigen-specific regulatory T cells and confers resistance to Bordetella pertussis by inhibiting inflammatory pathology. Journal of Immunology 171(6): 3119-3127
Wang, P.L.; Azuma, Y.; Shinohara, M.; Ohura, K. 2000: Toll-like receptor 4-mediated signal pathway induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide in human gingival fibroblasts. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 273(3): 1161-1167
Hart, M.L.; Mosier, D.A.; Chapes, S.K.; Chapes, S.K. 2003: Toll-like receptor 4-positive macrophages protect mice from Pasteurella pneumotropica-induced pneumonia. Infection and Immunity 71(2): 663-670
Zhang, J.; Xu, K.; Ambati, B.; Yu, F-Shin.X. 2003: Toll-like receptor 5-mediated corneal epithelial inflammatory responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa flagellin. IOVS Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 44(10): 4247-4254
Chuang, T-Hsien.; Lee, J.; Kline, L.; Mathison, J.C.; Ulevitch, R.J. 2002: Toll-like receptor 9 mediates CpG-DNA signaling. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 71(3): 538-544
Lund, J.; Sato, A.; Akira, S.; Medzhitov, R.; Iwasaki, A. 2003: Toll-like receptor 9-mediated recognition of Herpes simplex virus-2 by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Journal of Experimental Medicine 198(3): 513-520
Kandimalla, E.R.; Zhu, F-G.; Bhagat, L.; Yu, D.; Agrawal, S. 2003: Toll-like receptor 9: modulation of recognition and cytokine induction by novel synthetic CpG DNAs. Biochemical Society Transactions 31(Pt 3): 654-658
Krug, A.; Towarowski, A.; Britsch, S.; Rothenfusser, S.; Hornung, V.; Bals, R.; Giese, T.; Engelmann, H.; Endres, S.; Krieg, A.M.; Hartmann, G. 2001: Toll-like receptor expression reveals CpG DNA as a unique microbial stimulus for plasmacytoid dendritic cells which synergizes with CD40 ligand to induce high amounts of IL-12. European Journal of Immunology 31(10): 3026-3037
Kumaraguru, U.; Pack, C.D.; Rouse, B.T. 2003: Toll-like receptor ligand links innate and adaptive immune responses by the production of heat-shock proteins. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 73(5): 574-583
O'Neill, L.A.J. 2002: Toll-like receptor signal transduction and the tailoring of innate immunity: A role for Mal?. Trends in Immunology 23(6): 296-300
Ozato, K.; Tsujimura, H.; Tamura, T. 2002: Toll-like receptor signaling and regulation of cytokine gene expression in the immune system. Biotechniques Suppl: 66-8 70 72 Passim
Okamoto, M.; Sato, M. 2003: Toll-like receptor signaling in anti-cancer immunity. Journal of Medical Investigation: Jmi 50(1-2): 9-24
Opitz, B.; Schröder, N.W.; Spreitzer, I.; Michelsen, K.S.; Kirschning, C.J.; Hallatschek, W.; Zähringer, U.; Hartung, T.; Göbel, U.B.; Schumann, R.R. 2001: Toll-like receptor-2 mediates Treponema glycolipid and lipoteichoic acid-induced NF-kappaB translocation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276(25): 22041-22047
Xu, X.H.; Shah, P.K.; Faure, E.; Equils, O.; Thomas, L.; Fishbein, M.C.; Luthringer, D.; Xu, X.P.; Rajavashisth, T.B.; Yano, J.; Kaul, S.; Arditi, M. 2001: Toll-like receptor-4 is expressed by macrophages in murine and human lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques and upregulated by oxidized LDL. Circulation 104(25): 3103-3108
Chow, J.C.; Young, D.W.; Golenbock, D.T.; Christ, W.J.; Gusovsky, F. 1999: Toll-like receptor-4 mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced signal transduction. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274(16): 10689-10692
Calkins, C.M.; Barsness, K.; Bensard, D.D.; Vasquez-Torres, A.; Raeburn, C.D.; Meng, X.; McIntyre, R.C. 2002: Toll-like receptor-4 signaling mediates pulmonary neutrophil sequestration in response to gram-positive bacterial enterotoxin. Journal of Surgical Research 104(2): 124-130
Kobayashi, M.; Kweon, M-Na.; Kuwata, H.; Schreiber, R.D.; Kiyono, H.; Takeda, K.; Akira, S. 2003: Toll-like receptor-dependent production of IL-12p40 causes chronic enterocolitis in myeloid cell-specific Stat3-deficient mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation 111(9): 1297-1308
Zhang, G.; Ghosh, S. 2001: Toll-like receptor-mediated NF-kappaB activation: a phylogenetically conserved paradigm in innate immunity. Journal of Clinical Investigation 107(1): 13-19
Han, S.B.; Yoon, Y.D.; Ahn, H.J.; Lee, H.S.; Lee, C.W.; Yoon, W.K.; Park, S.K.; Kim, H.M. 2003: Toll-like receptor-mediated activation of B cells and macrophages by polysaccharide isolated from cell culture of Acanthopanax senticosus. International Immunopharmacology 3(9): 1301-1312
Adib-Conquy, M.; Moine, P.; Asehnoune, K.; Edouard, A.; Espevik, T.; Miyake, K.; Werts, C.; Cavaillon, J.-M. 2003: Toll-like receptor-mediated tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-10 production differ during systemic inflammation. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 168(2): 158-164
Hazeki, K.; Masuda, N.; Funami, K.; Sukenobu, N.; Matsumoto, M.; Akira, S.; Takeda, K.; Seya, T.; Hazeki, O. 2003: Toll-like receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin via MyD88-dependent and -independent pathways. European Journal of Immunology 33(3): 740-747
Muzio, M.; Mantovani, A. 2000: Toll-like receptors. Microbes and Infection 2(3): 251-255
Muzio, M.; Mantovani, A. 2001: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signalling and expression pattern. Journal of Endotoxin Research 7(4): 297-300
Rhee, S.H.; Jones, B.W.; Toshchakov, V.; Vogel, S.N.; Fenton, M.J. 2003: Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 activate STAT1 serine phosphorylation by distinct mechanisms in macrophages. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278(25): 22506-22512
Hausmann, M.; Kiessling, S.; Mestermann, S.; Webb, G.; Spöttl, T.; Andus, T.; Schölmerich, J.; Herfarth, H.; Ray, K.; Falk, W.; Rogler, G. 2002: Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 are up-regulated during intestinal inflammation. Gastroenterology 122(7): 1987-2000
Murillo, L.S.; Morré, S.A.; Peña, A.Salvador. 2003: Toll-like receptors and NOD/CARD proteins: pattern recognition receptors are key elements in the regulation of immune response. Drugs of Today 39(6): 415-438
Kaisho, T.; Akira, S. 2001: Toll-like receptors and their signaling mechanism in innate immunity. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 59(3): 124-130
Akira, S.; Sato, S. 2003: Toll-like receptors and their signaling mechanisms. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 35(9): 555-562
Kaisho, T.; Akira, S. 2002: Toll-like receptors as adjuvant receptors. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1589(1): 1-13
Tabeta, K.; Yamazaki, K.; Akashi, S.; Miyake, K.; Kumada, H.; Umemoto, T.; Yoshie, H. 2000: Toll-like receptors confer responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis in human gingival fibroblasts. Infection and Immunity 68(6): 3731-3735
de Kleijn, D.; Pasterkamp, G. 2003: Toll-like receptors in cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular Research 60(1): 58-67
Sabroe, I.; Read, R.C.; Whyte, M.K.B.; Dockrell, D.H.; Vogel, S.N.; Dower, S.K. 2003: Toll-like receptors in health and disease: Complex questions remain. Journal of Immunology 171(4): 1630-1635
Hayashi, F.; Means, T.K.; Luster, A.D. 2003: Toll-like receptors stimulate human neutrophil function. Blood 102(7): 2660-2669
Muzio, M.; Polentarutti, N.; Bosisio, D.; Prahladan, M.K.; Mantovani, A. 2000: Toll-like receptors: a growing family of immune receptors that are differentially expressed and regulated by different leukocytes. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 67(4): 450-456
Kirschning, C.J.; Bauer, S. 2001: Toll-like receptors: cellular signal transducers for exogenous molecular patterns causing immune responses. International Journal of Medical Microbiology: Ijmm 291(4): 251-260
Underhill, D.M. 2003: Toll-like receptors: networking for success. European Journal of Immunology 33(7): 1767-1775
Sabroe, I.; Parker, L.C.; Wilson, A.G.; Whyte, M.K.B.; Dower, S.K. 2002: Toll-like receptors: Their role in allergy and non-allergic inflammatory disease. Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology 32(7): 984-989
Takeuchi, O.; Akira, S. 2001: Toll-like receptors; their physiological role and signal transduction system. International Immunopharmacology 1(4): 625-635
Frantz, S.; Kobzik, L.; Kim, Y.D.; Fukazawa, R.; Medzhitov, R.; Lee, R.T.; Kelly, R.A. 1999: Toll4 (TLR4) expression in cardiac myocytes in normal and failing myocardium. Journal of Clinical Investigation 104(3): 271-280
Fiore, D. 2002: Tolleranza Congenita Ereditata e trapianti d'organo. EOS-Rivista di Immunologia ed Immunofarmacologia 22(2): 40-43
Boyd, H. 1999: Tolling by breeding Brent and small Canada Geese. Wildfowl 50: 195-197
Alioglu, Z.; Akbas, A.; Sari, A.; Erdöl, H.; Ozmenoglu, M. 1999: Tolosa Hunt syndrome: a case report. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Journal of Neuroradiology 26(1): 68-72
Tessitore, E.; Tessitore, A. 2000: Tolosa-Hunt syndrome preceded by facial palsy. Headache 40(5): 393-396
Pascual, J.; Cerezal, L.; Canga, A.; Alvarez, D.A.caya, A.; Polo, J.M.; Berciano, J. 1999: Tolosa-Hunt syndrome: Focus on MRI diagnosis. Cephalalgia 19(Suppl 25): 36-38
Heinrichs, J.; Groth, H. 2001: Tolpis staticifolia (ALL.) SCHULTZ-BIP. (Asteraceae) Adventiv bei Hardegsen/Suedniedersachsen. Floristische Rundbriefe 34(2): 75-77
Schmitz, G. 1999: Toltecia pusilla (Lowe 1831)(Pulmonata: Endodontidae). Mitteilungen der Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft 1999(62-63): 35-39
Nilvebrant, L. 2002: Tolterodine and its active 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite: Pure muscarinic receptor antagonists. Pharmacology and Toxicology 90(5): 260-267
Womack, K.B.; Heilman, K.M. 2003: Tolterodine and memory: dry but forgetful. Archives of Neurology 60(5): 771-773
Brynne, N.; Böttiger, Y.; Hallén, B.; Bertilsson, L. 1999: Tolterodine does not affect the human in vivo metabolism of the probe drugs caffeine, debrisoquine and omeprazole. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 47(2): 145-150
Larsson, G.; Hallén, B.; Nilvebrant, L. 1999: Tolterodine in the treatment of overactive bladder: Analysis of the pooled phase ii efficacy and safety data. Urology 53(5): 990-998
Van Kerrebroeck, P.; Kreder, K.; Jonas, U.; Zinner, N.; Wein, A. 2001: Tolterodine once-daily: Superior efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of the overactive bladder. Urology 57(3): 414-421
Ruscin, J.M.; Morgenstern, N.E. 1999: Tolterodine use for symptoms of overactive bladder. Annals of PharmacoTherapy 33(10): 1073-1082
Harvey, M.A.; Baker, K.; Wells, G.A. 2001: Tolterodine versus oxybutynin in the treatment of urge urinary incontinence: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 185(1): 56-61
Guay, D.R. 1999: Tolterodine, a new antimuscarinic drug for treatment of bladder overactivity. Pharmacotherapy 19(3): 267-280
Chancellor, M.; Freedman, S.; Mitcheson, H.D.; Antoci, J.; Primus, G.; Wein, A. 2000: Tolterodine, an effective and well tolerated treatment for urge incontinence and other overactive bladder symptoms. Clinical Drug Investigation 19(2): 83-91
Schlienger, R.G.; Keller, M.J.; Krähenbühl, S. 2002: Tolterodine-associated acute mixed liver injury. Annals of PharmacoTherapy 36(5): 817-819
Colucci, V.J.; Rivey, M.P. 1999: Tolterodine-warfarin drug interaction. Annals of PharmacoTherapy 33(11): 1173-1176
Malone-Lee, J.G.; Walsh, J.B.; Maugourd, M.F. 2001: Tolterodine: A safe and effective treatment for older patients with overactive bladder. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 49(6): 700-705
Malone-Lee, J.; Shaffu, B.; Anand, C.; Powell, C. 2001: Tolterodine: Superior tolerability than and comparable efficacy to oxybutynin in individuals 50 years old or older with overactive bladder: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Urology 165(5): 1452-1456
Saracibar, G.; Hernandez, M.L.; Echevarria, E.; Barbero, I.; Gutierrez, A.; Casis, O. 2001: Toluene alters mu-opioid receptor expression in the rat brainstem. Industrial Health 39(3): 231-234
Campo, P.; Loquet, G.; Blachère, V.; Roure, M. 1999: Toluene and styrene intoxication route in the rat cochlea. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 21(4): 427-434
Zilli, M.; Palazzi, E.; Sene, L.; Converti, A.; Del Borghi, M. 2001: Toluene and styrene removal from air in biofilters. Process Biochemistry 37(4): 423-429
Wada, H. 1999: Toluene and temporal discrimination in rats: Effects on accuracy, discriminability, and time estimation. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 21(6): 709-718
García-Peña, E.I.; Hernández, S.; Favela-Torres, E.; Auria, R.; Revah, S. 2001: Toluene biofiltration by the fungus Scedosporium apiospermum TB1. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 76(1): 61-69
Hougaard, K.S.; Hansen, A.M.; Hass, U.; Lund, Søren.P. 2003: Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats. Pharmacology and Toxicology 92(3): 148-152
Lange, R.W.; Lantz, R.C.; Stolz, D.B.; Watkins, S.C.; Sundareshan, P.; Lemus, R.; Karol, M.H. 1999: Toluene diisocyanate colocalizes with tubulin on cilia of differentiated human airway epithelial cells. Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology 50(1): 64-71
Hunter, D.D.; Satterfield, B.E.; Huang, J.; Fedan, J.S.; Dey, R.D. 2000: Toluene diisocyanate enhances substance P in sensory neurons innervating the nasal mucosa. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 161(2 Part 1): 543-549
Park, S.W.; Kim, N.; Yang, Y.; Seo, B.; Paeng, K.J. 1998: Toluene distribution of glue sniffers' biological fluid samples in Korea. Journal of Forensic Sciences 43(4): 888-890
Marczak, M.; Wolska, L.; Namiesnik, J. 2003: Toluene in benthic sediments in the Odra River after the 1997 flood: An attempt to identify the origin of toluene. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 12(2): 193-197
Cruz, S.L.; Páez-Martínez, N.; Pellicer, F.; Salazar, L.A.; López-Rubalcava, C. 2001: Toluene increases acute thermonociception in mice. Behavioural Brain Research 120(2): 213-220
Gerasimov, M.R.; Collier, L.; Ferrieri, A.; Alexoff, D.; Lee, D.; Gifford, A.N.; Balster, R.L. 2003: Toluene inhalation produces a conditioned place preference in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology 477(1): 45-52
Gerasimov, M.R.; Schiffer, W.K.; Marstellar, D.; Ferrieri, R.; Alexoff, D.; Dewey, S.L. 2002: Toluene inhalation produces regionally specific changes in extracellular dopamine. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 65(3): 243-251
Wu, M.; Shaffer, K.M.; Pancrazio, J.J.; O'Shaughnessy, T.J.; Stenger, D.A.; Zhang, L.; Barker, J.L.; Maric, D. 2002: Toluene inhibits muscarinic receptor-mediated cytosolic Ca2+ responses in neural precursor cells. Neurotoxicology 23(1): 61-68
Tillar, R.; Shafer, T.J.; Woodward, J.J. 2002: Toluene inhibits voltage-sensitive calcium channels expressed in pheochromocytoma cells. Neurochemistry International 41(6): 391-397
Bozic, T.; Stevanovic, J.; Kovacevic, M.; Jovic, S.; Lukic, S.; Petakov, M.; Borozan, S.; Mijacevic, Z.; Knezevic, M.; Bulajic, S. 2003: Toluene mediated oxidative stress and granulo-monocytopoiesis. Acta Veterinaria 53(4): 201-210
Mosqueda, G.; Ramos-González, M.I.; Ramos, J.L. 1999: Toluene metabolism by the solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1 strain, and its role in solvent impermeabilization. Gene 232(1): 69-76
Pierce, C.H.; Chen, Y.; Dills, R.L.; Kalman, D.A.; Morgan, M.S. 2002: Toluene metabolites as biological indicators of exposure. Toxicology Letters 129(1-2): 65-76
Lim, T.G.; Gan, K.D.; Hughes, T.A.; Hayasaka, S.S. 2001: Toluene mineralization and growth potential of Pseudomonas putida PaW164 under toluene-limiting conditions. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 41(2): 117-122
McClay, K.; Fox, B.G.; Steffan, R.J. 2000: Toluene monooxygenase-catalyzed epoxidation of alkenes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66(5): 1877-1882
Lataye, R.; Campo, P.; Loquet, G. 1999: Toluene ototoxicity in rats: Assessment of the frequency of hearing deficit by electrocochleography. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 21(3): 267-276
Brown, W.A.; Cooper, D.G.; Liss, S.N. 2000: Toluene removal in an automated cyclical bioreactor. Biotechnology Progress 16(3): 378-384
Sun, Y.mei; Quan, Xie; Chen, Jingwen; Yang, Fenglin; Xue, Daming; Liu, Yonghui; Yang, Zhenhui 2002: Toluene vapour degradation and microbial community in biofilter at various moisture content. Process Biochemistry 38(1): 109-113
Takeuchi, A.; Kawai, T.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Miyama, Y.; Sakamoto, K.; Higashikawa, K.; Ikeda, M. 2002: Toluene, xylenes and xylene isomers in urine as biological indicators of low-level exposure to each solvent; a comparative study. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 75(6): 387-393
Valentine, W.M.; Valentine, H.L.; Amarnath, K.; Amarnath, V. 1999: Toluene-3,4-dithiol analysis of blood for assessing carbon disulfide exposure. Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology 50(2): 155-163
Parales, R.E.; Ditty, J.L.; Harwood, C.S. 2000: Toluene-degrading bacteria are chemotactic towards the environmental pollutants benzene, toluene, and trichloroethylene. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66(9): 4098-4104
Westerink, R.H.S.; Vijverberg, H.P.M. 2002: Toluene-induced, Ca(2+)-dependent vesicular catecholamine release in rat PC12 cells. Neuroscience Letters 326(2): 81-84
Jiang, Y.J.; Hammond, E.G. 2002: Toluenesulfonate-acyl esters of ethylene glycol and other 1,2-diols as industrial antioxidants with cupric ion. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 79(8): 791-796
Audi, S.H.; Olson, L.E.; Bongard, R.D.; Roerig, D.L.; Schulte, M.L.; Dawson, C.A. 2000: Toluidine blue O and methylene blue as endothelial redox probes in the intact lung. American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology 278(1): H137-H150
Erenpreisa, J.; Erenpreiss, J.; Freivalds, T.; Slaidina, M.; Krampe, R.; Butikova, J.; Ivanov, A.; Pjanova, D. 2003: Toluidine blue test for sperm DNA integrity and elaboration of image cytometry algorithm. Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology 52(1): 19-27
Sánchez, A.; Guzmán, A.; Ortiz, A.; Rembao, D.; Espinosa, B.; Zenteno, E.; Guevara, J. 2001: Toluidine blue-O staining of prion protein deposits. Histochemistry and Cell Biology 116(6): 519-524
Langangen, A.; Zhakova, L. 2002: Tolypella canadensis Sawa (Charales), a charophyte new to the flora of Russia, with remarks on its ecology and distribution. Casopis Narodniho Muzea Rada Prirodovedna 171(1-4): 85-88
Grey, J.Y.; Connor, M.K.; Gordon, J.W.; Yano, M.; Mori, M.; Hood, D.A. 2000: Tom20-mediated mitochondrial protein import in muscle cells during differentiation. American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology 279(5): C1393-C1400
Mukhopadhyay, A.; Avramova, L.V.; Weiner, H. 2002: Tom34 unlike Tom20 does not interact with the leader sequences of mitochondrial precursor proteins. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 400(1): 97-104
Gabriel, K.; Egan, B.; Lithgow, T. 2003: Tom40, the import channel of the mitochondrial outer membrane, plays an active role in sorting imported proteins. EMBO Journal 22(10): 2380-2386
Ahting, U.; Thieffry, M.; Engelhardt, H.; Hegerl, R.; Neupert, W.; Nussberger, S. 2001: Tom40, the pore-forming component of the protein-conducting TOM channel in the outer membrane of mitochondria. Journal of Cell Biology 153(6): 1151-1160
Roldán-Arjona, T.; Pérez-Espinosa, A.; Ruiz-Rubio, M. 1999: Tomatinase from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici defines a new class of saponinases. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions: Mpmi 12(10): 852-861
Kozukue, N.; Friedman, M. 2003: Tomatine, chlorophyll, beta-carotene and lycopene content in tomatoes during growth and maturation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 83(3): 195-200
Castagnoli, M.; Liguori, M.; Simoni, S.; Guidi, S. 1998: Tomato as host plant: Effect on some biological parameters of Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Tetranychus urticae Koch strains. Redia 81: 93-99
Nassar, H.H.; Hassan, A.A.; Barakat, M.A.; Tolba, M.S. 1999: Tomato breeding for salinity tolerance. II. Assessment and nature of tolerance in some domestic and wild accessions. Egyptian Journal of Horticulture 26(3): 357-390
Rehman, A.; Bourne, L.C.; Halliwell, B.; Rice-Evans, C.A. 1999: Tomato consumption modulates oxidative DNA damage in humans. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 262(3): 828-831
Maul, F.S.rgent, S.; Sims, C.; Baldwin, E.; Balaban, M.; Huber, D. 2000: Tomato flavor and aroma quality as affected by storage temperature. Journal of food science 65(7): 1228-1237
Boulard, T.; Mermier, M.; Fargues, J.; Smits, N.; Rougier, M.; Roy, J.C.aude 2002: Tomato leaf boundary layer climate: Implications for microbiological whitefly control in greenhouses. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 110(3): 159-176, 3 January
Sandoval Villa, M.; Guertal, E.A.; Wood, C.W. 2000: Tomato leaf chlorophyll meter reading as affected by variety, nitrogen form, and nighttime nutrient solution strength. Journal of Plant Nutrition 23(5): 649-661
Stonor, J.; Hart, P.; Gunther, M.; Debarro, P.; Rezaian, M.A. 2003: Tomato leaf curl geminivirus in Australia: Occurrence, detection, sequence diversity and host range. Plant Pathology 52(3): 379-388
Agarwal, S.; Rao, A.V. 1998: Tomato lycopene and low density lipoprotein oxidation: a human dietary intervention study. Lipids 33(10): 981-984
Yin, Q.; Yang, H.; Gong, Q.; Wang, H.; Liu, Y.; Hong, Y.; Tien, P. 2001: Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus: monopartite genome organization and agroinfection of plants. Virus Research 81(1-2): 69-76
Gann, P.H.; Khachik, F. 2003: Tomatoes or lycopene versus prostate cancer: is evolution anti-reductionist?. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 95(21): 1563-1565
Pohar, K.S.; Gong, M.C.; Bahnson, R.; Miller, E.C.; Clinton, S.K. 2003: Tomatoes, lycopene and prostate cancer: a clinician's guide for counseling those at risk for prostate cancer. World Journal of Urology 21(1): 9-14
Giovannucci, E. 1999: Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 91(4): 317-331
Lim, H.Hwa.; Surana, U. 2003: Tome-1, wee1, and the onset of mitosis: Coupled destruction for timely entry. Molecular Cell 11(4): 845-846
Agerer, R.; Bougher, N., L. 2001: Tomentella brunneorufa M. J. Larsen Eucalyptus spec. Descriptions of Ectomycorrhizae 5: 205-212
Jakucs, E.; Agerer, R. 2001: Tomentella subtestacea Bourdot & Galzin Populus alba L. Descriptions of Ectomycorrhizae 5: 213-219
Faccoli, M. 2001: Tomicobia seitneri, Ropalophorus clavicornis and Coeloides bostrychorum: Three hymenopterous parasitoids of Ips typographus new to Italy (Hymenoptera Pteromalidae, Braconidae: Coleoptera Scolytidae). Bollettino della Societa Entomologica Italiana 133(3): 237-246
Poland, T., M.; Haack, R., A. 2000: Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): Is shoot-feeding required for reproductive maturation?. Great Lakes Entomologist 33(1): 9-15
Iwata, A.; Ohnishi, N.; Hirata, T. 2000: Tomiyamichthys alleni: A new species of gobiidae from Japan and Indonesia. Copeia 3: 771-776
Périé, D.; Sales De Gauzy, J.; Baunin, C.; Hobatho, M.C. 2001: Tomodensitometry measurements for in vivo quantification of mechanical properties of scoliotic vertebrae. Clinical Biomechanics 16(5): 373-379
Kozlowski, A. 2002: Tomograficzna ocena narzadu zucia u kobiet z osteoporoza. Roczniki Pomorskiej Akademii Medycznej w Szczecinie 48: 243-254
Shibata, T.; Matsumoto, S.; Nagano, T. 1999: Tomograms of the arterial system of the human fetal auditory apparatus obtained by very-high-resolution microfocus X-ray CT and 3D reconstruction. Kaibogaku Zasshi. Journal of Anatomy 74(5): 545-553
Otani, T.; Kishi, S. 2000: Tomographic assessment of vitreous surgery for diabetic macular edema. American Journal of Ophthalmology 129(4): 487-494
Mogelsvang, S.; Gomez-Ospina, N.; Soderholm, J.; Glick, B.S.; Staehelin, L.A. 2003: Tomographic evidence for continuous turnover of Golgi cisternae in Pichia pastoris. Molecular Biology of the Cell 14(6): 2277-2291
Takahashi, H.; Kishi, S. 2000: Tomographic features of a lamellar macular hole formation and a lamellar hole that progressed to a full-thickness macular hole. American Journal of Ophthalmology 130(5): 677-679
Takahashi, H.; Kishi, S. 2000: Tomographic features of early macular hole closure after vitreous surgery. American Journal of Ophthalmology 130(2): 192-196
Kobayashi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Ishihara, K.; Kishi, S. 2001: Tomographic features of macular hole in high myopic eyes following resolution of retinal detachment by vitreous surgery. Rinsho Ganka 55(5): 799-803
Yamaguchi, Y.miko; Otani, Tomohiro; Kishi, Shoji 2002: Tomographic findings as a prognostic factor of final visual acuity in central retinal vein occlusion. Rinsho Ganka 56(5): 775-778
Otani, T.; Kishi, S. 2001: Tomographic findings of foveal hard exudates in diabetic macular edema. American Journal of Ophthalmology 131(1): 50-54
Lu, W.; Mackie, T.R. 2002: Tomographic motion detection and correction directly in sinogram space. Physics in Medicine and Biology 47(8): 1267-1284
Vieira, P.; Manivannan, A.; Lim, C.S.; Sharp, P.; Forrester, J.V. 1999: Tomographic reconstruction of the retina using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Physiological Measurement 20(1): 1-19
Monllau, J.C.; Solano, A.; León, A.; Hinarejos, P.; Ballester, J. 2003: Tomographic study of the arthroscopic approaches to the hip joint. Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery: Official Publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association 19(4): 368-372
Ashizawa, N.; Nonaka, K.; Michikami, S.; Mizuki, T.; Amagai, H.; Tokuyama, K.; Suzuki, M. 1999: Tomographical description of tennis-loaded radius: reciprocal relation between bone size and volumetric BMD. Journal of Applied Physiology 86(4): 1347-1351
Fernandez-Alamo, Maria-Ana 2000: Tomopterids (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Bulletin of Marine Science 67(1): 45-53
Jimenez-Cueto, S.; Suarez-Morales, E. 1999: Tomopterids (Polychaeta: Tomopteridae) of the western Caribbean Sea. Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique Biologie 69: 5-14
Lin, H.; Wada, K.; Yonezawa, M.; Shinoki, K.; Akamatsu, T.; Tsukui, T.; Sakamoto, C. 2003: Tomoregulin ectodomain shedding by proinflammatory cytokines. Life Sciences 73(13): 1617-1627
Griffiths, P.D. 2002: Tomorrow's challenges for herpesvirus management: potential applications of valacyclovir. Journal of Infectious Diseases 186(Suppl 1): S131-S137
Widberg, C.H.; Bryant, N.J.; Girotti, M.; Rea, S.; James, D.E. 2003: Tomosyn interacts with the t-SNAREs syntaxin4 and SNAP23 and plays a role in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278(37): 35093-35101
Hesse, B.M.; Spies, L.; Groh, B.A. 1998: Tomotherapeutic portal imaging for radiation treatment verification. Physics in Medicine and Biology 43(12): 3607-3616
Braun, V.; Patzer, S.I.; Hantke, K. 2002: Ton-dependent colicins and microcins: Modular design and evolution. Biochimie 84(5-6): 365-380
Reeves, S.A.; Torres, A.G.; Payne, S.M. 2000: TonB is required for intracellular growth and virulence of Shigella dysenteriae. Infection and Immunity 68(11): 6329-6336
Killmann, H.; Herrmann, C.; Torun, A.; Jung, G.ün.; Braun, V. 2002: TonB of Escherichia coli activates FhuA through interaction with the beta-barrel. Microbiology 148(Part 11): 3497-3509
Torres, A.G.; Redford, P.; Welch, R.A.; Payne, S.M. 2001: TonB-dependent systems of uropathogenic Escherichia coli: aerobactin and heme transport and TonB are required for virulence in the mouse. Infection and Immunity 69(10): 6179-6185
Woo, S.K.; Lee, S.D.; Kwon, H.M. 2002: TonEBP transcriptional activator in the cellular response to increased osmolality. Pflugers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology 444(5): 579-585
Woo, S.Kyoon.; Lee, S.Do.; Na, K.Young.; Park, W.Kun.; Kwon, H.Moo. 2002: TonEBP/NFAT5 stimulates transcription of HSP70 in response to hypertonicity. Molecular and Cellular Biology 22(16): 5753-5760
Stroinski, A.; Szwedo, J. 2000: Tonacatecutlius gibsoni gen. and sp. nov. from the Oligocene/Miocene Mexican amber (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Nogodinidae). Annales Zoologici (Warsaw) 50(3): 341-345
Chimoto, S.; Kitama, T.; Qin, L.; Sakayori, S.; Sato, Y. 2002: Tonal response patterns of primary auditory cortex neurons in alert cats. Brain Research 934(1): 34-42
Talarmin, A.; Trochu, J.; Gardon, J.; Laventure, S.; Hommel, D.; Lelarge, J.; Labeau, B.; Digoutte, J.P.; Hulin, A.; Sarthou, J.L. 2001: Tonate virus infection in French Guiana: clinical aspects and seroepidemiologic study. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 64(5-6): 274-279
Dempsey, D.A.; Hajnal, B.L.; Partridge, J.C.; Jacobson, S.N.; Good, W.; Jones, R.T.; Ferriero, D.M. 2000: Tone abnormalities are associated with maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy in in utero cocaine-exposed infants. Pediatrics 106(1 Pt 1): 79-85
Murray, J.G.; Cohn, E.S.; Harker, L.A.; Gorga, M.P. 1998: Tone burst auditory brain stem response latency estimates of cochlear travel time in Meniere's disease, cochlear hearing loss, and normal ears. American Journal of Otology 19(6): 854-859
Wable, J.; Frachet, B.; Gallégo, S. 2001: Tone decay at threshold with auditory electrical stimulation in digisonic cochlear implantees. Audiology: Official Organ of the International Society of Audiology 40(5): 265-271
Liu, T.C.; Hsu, C.J.; Horng, M.J. 2000: Tone detection in Mandarin-speaking hearing-impaired subjects. Audiology: Official Organ of the International Society of Audiology 39(2): 106-109
Cotillon, N.; Edeline, J.M. 2000: Tone-evoked oscillations in the rat auditory cortex result from interactions between the thalamus and reticular nucleus. European Journal of Neuroscience 12(10): 3637-3650
Tanjasiri, S.P.; LeHa'uli, P.; Finau, S.; Fehoko, I'laisaane.; Skeen, N.A. 2002: Tongan-American women's breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors. Ethnicity and Disease 12(2): 284-290
Na, H-Jeong.; Jeong, H-Ja.; Bae, H.; Kim, Y-Bok.; Park, S-Taeck.; Yun, Y-Gab.; Kim, H-Min. 2002: Tongkyutang inhibits mast cell-dependent allergic reactions and inflammatory cytokines secretion. Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry 319(1): 35-41
Naganuma, K.; Inoue, M.; Yamamura, K.; Hanada, K.; Yamada, Y. 2001: Tongue and jaw muscle activities during chewing and swallowing in freely behaving rabbits. Brain Research 915(2): 185-194
Sander, H.W.; Aberfeld, D.C.; Chokroverty, S. 1999: Tongue and limb myokymia in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurology 53(8): 1889-1891
Yamanaka, G.; Goto, K.; Matsumura, T.; Funakoshi, M.; Komori, T.; Hayashi, Y.K.; Arahata, K. 2001: Tongue atrophy in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Neurology 57(4): 733-735
Hilton, E.J. 2001: Tongue bite apparatus of osteoglossomorph fishes: Variation of a character complex. Copeia 2001(2): 372-381
Weijnen, F.G.; Kuks, J.B.; van der Bilt, A.; van der Glas, H.W.; Wassenberg, M.W.; Bosman, F. 2000: Tongue force in patients with myasthenia gravis. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 102(5): 303-308
Hartley, Gillian; Mckenzie, Colin; Greenman, John; El-Maaytah, Mohammed, A.; Scully, Crispian; Porter, Stephen 1999: Tongue microbiota and malodour: Effects of metronidazole mouthrinse on tongue microbiota and breath odour. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 11(4): 226-233
Hori, R.; Sato, M.; Kohno, S.; Hoshino, E. 1999: Tongue microflora in edentulous geriatric denture-wearers. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 11(2): 89-95
Rockey, J.Gabriel.; Anand, R. 2002: Tongue necrosis secondary to temporal arteritis: A case report and literature review. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology and Endodontics 94(4): 471-473
Kumar, P.; Kumar, S.; Singh, Y. 1998: Tongue papillae in goat: A scanning electron-microscopic study. Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 27(6): 355-357
Dyce, O.; Bruno, J.R.; Hong, D.; Silverstein, K.; Brown, M.J.; Mirza, N. 2000: Tongue piercing. The new "rusty nail"?. Head and Neck 22(7): 728-732
Shacham, R.; Zaguri, A.; Librus, H.Z.; Bar, T.; Eliav, E.; Nahlieli, O. 2003: Tongue piercing and its adverse effects. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology and Endodontics 95(3): 274-276
Campbell, A.; Moore, A.; Williams, E.; Stephens, J.; Tatakis, D.N. 2002: Tongue piercing: impact of time and barbell stem length on lingual gingival recession and tooth chipping. Journal of Periodontology 73(3): 289-297
Mortimore, I.L.; Fiddes, P.; Stephens, S.; Douglas, N.J. 1999: Tongue protrusion force and fatiguability in male and female subjects. European Respiratory Journal 14(1): 191-195
Gulyaeva, N.; Thompson, C.; Shinohara, N.; Lazareva, N.; Onufriev, M.; Stepanichev, M.; Moiseeva, Y.; Fliss, H.; Hakim, A.M. 2003: Tongue protrusion: A simple test for neurological recovery in rats following focal cerebral ischemia. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 125(1-2): 183-193
Kacker, A.; Honrado, C.; Martin, D.; Ward, R. 2000: Tongue reduction in Beckwith-Weidemann Syndrome. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 53(1): 1-7
Day, T.A.; Tarr, C.; Zealear, D.; Burkey, B.B.; Sullivan, C.A. 2000: Tongue replantation in an animal model. Microsurgery 20(3): 105-108
Rödel, R.M.W.; Laskawi, R.; Markus, H. 2003: Tongue representation in the lateral cortical motor region of the human brain as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Annals of Otology Rhinology and Laryngology 112(1): 71-76
Wallace, H.; Davis, A.; Spedding, A. 2001: Tongue-base hamartoma in tuberous sclerosis. Journal of Laryngology and Otology 115(2): 149-150
Derowe, A.; Gunther, E.; Fibbi, A.; Lehtimaki, K.; Vahatalo, K.; Maurer, J.; Ophir, D. 2000: Tongue-base suspension with a soft tissue-to-bone anchor for obstructive sleep apnea: Preliminary clinical results of a new minimally invasive technique. Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery: Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery 122(1): 100-103
Hiiemae, K.M.; Palmer, J.B. 2001: Tongue-jaw linkages: The mechanisms of feeding revisited. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 156(1): 205-217, 10 October
Green, J.R.; Wang, Y-Tsai. 2003: Tongue-surface movement patterns during speech and swallowing. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 113(5): 2820-2833
Westbury, J.R.; Lindstrom, M.J.; McClean, M.D. 2002: Tongues and lips without jaws: a comparison of methods for decoupling speech movements. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research: Jslhr 45(4): 651-662
Zadnik, K.; Mutti, D.O.; Kim, H.S.; Jones, L.A.; Qiu, P.H.; Moeschberger, M.L. 1999: Tonic accommodation, age, and refractive error in children. IOVS Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 40(6): 1050-1060
Parnas, I.; Rashkovan, G.; Ong, J.; Kerr, D.I. 1999: Tonic activation of presynaptic GABAB receptors in the opener neuromuscular junction of crayfish. Journal of Neurophysiology 81(3): 1184-1191
Him, A.; Johnston, A.R.; Yau, J.L.; Seckl, J.; Dutia, M.B. 2001: Tonic activity and GABA responsiveness of medial vestibular nucleus neurons in aged rats. Neuroreport 12(18): 3965-3968
Pereira, M.F.; Cunha, R.A.; Ribeiro, J.A. 2000: Tonic adenosine neuromodulation is preserved in motor nerve endings of aged rats. Neurochemistry International 36(7): 563-566
Ogilvie, J.; Simpson, D.A.; Clarke, R.W. 1999: Tonic adrenergic and serotonergic inhibition of a withdrawal reflex in rabbits subjected to different levels of surgical preparation. Neuroscience 89(4): 1247-1258
Sherman, S.M. 2001: Tonic and burst firing: Dual modes of thalamocortical relay. Trends in Neurosciences 24(2): 122-126
Masakado, Y.; Akaboshi, K.; Kimura, A.; Chino, N. 2000: Tonic and kinetic motor units revisited: Does motor unit firing behavior differentiate motor units?. Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 111(12): 2196-2199
De Brabander, B.; Declerck, C.H.; Boone, C. 2002: Tonic and phasic activation and arousal effects as a function of feedback in repetitive-choice reaction time tasks. Behavioral Neuroscience 116(3): 397-402
Murphy, P.R. 2002: Tonic and phasic discharge patterns in toe flexor gamma-motoneurons during locomotion in the decerebrate cat. Journal of Neurophysiology 87(1): 286-294
Moran, O.; Picollo, A.; Conti, F. 2003: Tonic and phasic guanidinium toxin-block of skeletal muscle Na channels expressed in Mammalian cells. Biophysical Journal 84(5): 2999-3006
Détári, L. 2000: Tonic and phasic influence of basal forebrain unit activity on the cortical EEG. Behavioural Brain Research 115(2): 159-170
Madrid, R.; Sanhueza, M.; Alvarez, O.; Bacigalupo, J. 2003: Tonic and phasic receptor neurons in the vertebrate olfactory epithelium. Biophysical Journal 84(6): 4167-4181
Boccaccio, A.; Moran, O.; Imoto, K.; Conti, F. 1999: Tonic and phasic tetrodotoxin block of sodium channels with point mutations in the outer pore region. Biophysical Journal 77(1): 229-240
Hamann, M.; Rossi, D.J.; Attwell, D. 2002: Tonic and spillover inhibition of granule cells control information flow through cerebellar cortex. Neuron 33(4): 625-633
Mangusheva, N.A.; Katalymov, L.L. 2000: Tonic and stimulus-dependent impulse conduction blockade by ajmaline and lidocaine. Sensornye Sistemy 14(3): 209-212
Aroniadou-Anderjaska, V.; Zhou, F.M.; Priest, C.A.; Ennis, M.; Shipley, M.T. 2000: Tonic and synaptically evoked presynaptic inhibition of sensory input to the rat olfactory bulb via GABA(B) heteroreceptors. Journal of Neurophysiology 84(3): 1194-1203
Leao, R.M.; Mellor, J.R.; Randall, A.D. 2000: Tonic benzodiazepine-sensitive GABAergic inhibition in cultured rodent cerebellar granule cells. Neuropharmacology 39(6): 990-1003
Bräu, M.E.; Koch, E.D.; Vogel, W.; Hempelmann, G. 2000: Tonic blocking action of meperidine on Na+ and K+ channels in amphibian peripheral nerves. Anesthesiology 92(1): 147-155
Carlton, S.M.; Du, J.; Zhou, S.; Coggeshall, R.E. 2001: Tonic control of peripheral cutaneous nociceptors by somatostatin receptors. Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 21(11): 4042-4049
Vanderah, T.W.; Suenaga, N.M.; Ossipov, M.H.; Malan, T.P.; Lai, J.; Porreca, F. 2001: Tonic descending facilitation from the rostral ventromedial medulla mediates opioid-induced abnormal pain and antinociceptive tolerance. Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 21(1): 279-286
Fass, D.M.; Takimoto, K.; Mains, R.E.; Levitan, E.S. 1999: Tonic dopamine inhibition of L-type Ca2+ channel activity reduces alpha1D Ca2+ channel gene expression. Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 19(9): 3345-3352
Ito, S.; Komatsu, K.; Tsukamoto, K.; Sved, A.F. 2001: Tonic excitatory input to the rostral ventrolateral medulla in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Hypertension 37(2): 687-691
Stoiber, W.; Haslett, J.R.; Steinbacher, P.; Freimüller, M.; Sänger, A.M. 2002: Tonic fibres in axial muscle of cyprinid fish larvae: their definition, possible origins and functional importance. Anatomy and Embryology 205(2): 113-124
Peoples, L.L.; Uzwiak, A.J.; Gee, F.; West, M.O. 1999: Tonic firing of rat nucleus accumbens neurons: Changes during the first 2 weeks of daily cocaine self-administration sessions. Brain Research 822(1-2): 231-236
Yamanashi, K.; Miyamae, T.; Misu, Y.; Goshima, Y. 2001: Tonic function of nicotinic receptors in stress-induced release of L-DOPA from the nucleus accumbens in freely moving rats. European Journal of Pharmacology 424(3): 199-202
Balaban, E.; Centini, C.; Pompeiano, O. 2002: Tonic gravity changes alter gene expression in the efferent vestibular nucleus. Neuroreport 13(1): 187-190
Erhard, H.W.; Mendl, M. 1999: Tonic immobility and emergence time in pigs: More evidence for behavioural strategies. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 61(3): 227-237
Olsen, C.K.; Hogg, S.; Lapiz, M.D.S. 2002: Tonic immobility in guinea pigs: a behavioural response for detecting an anxiolytic-like effect?. Behavioural Pharmacology 13(4): 261-269
Kask, A.; Schioth, H.B. 2000: Tonic inhibition of food intake during inactive phase is reversed by the injection of the melanocortin receptor antagonist into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and central amygdala of the rat. Brain Research 887(2): 460-464, 29 December
Jiao, X.; Gonzalez-Cabrera, P.J.; Xiao, L.; Bradley, M.E.; Abel, P.W.; Jeffries, W.B. 2002: Tonic inhibitory role for cAMP in alpha(1a)-adrenergic receptor coupling to extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 303(1): 247-256
Logeman, F.; Roelofs, J.M.; Obertop, H.; Akkermans, L.M. 2000: Tonic motor activity of the narrow gastric tube used as an oesophageal substitute. European Journal of Surgery 166(4): 301-306
Cordero-Erausquin, M.; Changeux, J.P. 2001: Tonic nicotinic modulation of serotoninergic transmission in the spinal cord. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98(5): 2803-2807
Donahue, S.P.; Lavin, P.J.; Hamed, L.M. 1999: Tonic ocular tilt reaction simulating a superior oblique palsy: diagnostic confusion with the 3-step test. Archives of Ophthalmology 117(3): 347-352
Hakan, R.L. 2001: Tonic opioid inhibition of the subiculo-accumbens pathway. Synapse 41(1): 71-85
Perissin, L.; Facchin, P.; Porro, C.A.olfo 2003: Tonic pain response in mice: Effects of sex, season and time of day. Life Sciences 72(8): 897-907
Yamaki, K.; Ogawa, M.; Ito, Y. 2000: Tonic potentiation and attenuation produced by membrane depolarization in guinea-pig trachealis. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 27(5-6): 394-400
Bowie, E.M.; Givre, S.J. 2003: Tonic pupil and sarcoidosis. American Journal of Ophthalmology 135(3): 417-419
Lambert, S.R.; Yang, L.L.; Stone, C. 2000: Tonic pupil associated with congenital neuroblastoma, Hirschsprung disease, and central hypoventilation syndrome. American Journal of Ophthalmology 130(2): 238-240
Nicolás, J.M.; Renard-Rooney, D.C.; Thomas, A.P. 1998: Tonic regulation of excitation-contraction coupling by basal protein kinase C activity in isolated cardiac myocytes. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 30(12): 2591-2604
Kawahara, Y.; Kawahara, H.; Westerink, B.H. 1999: Tonic regulation of the activity of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus of the conscious rat studied by dual-probe microdialysis. Brain Research 823(1-2): 42-48
Graves, J.E.; Greenwood, I.A.; Large, W.A. 2000: Tonic regulation of vascular tone by nitric oxide and chloride ions in rat isolated small coronary arteries. American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology 279(6): H2604-H2611
Nitz, D.; Tononi, G. 2002: Tonic rhythmic activity of rat cerebellar neurons. Experimental Brain Research 146(2): 265-270
Werhahn, K.J.; Noachtar, S.; Arnold, S.; Pfänder, M.; Henkel, A.; Winkler, P.A.; Lüders, H.O. 2000: Tonic seizures: Their significance for lateralization and frequency in different focal epileptic syndromes. Epilepsia 41(9): 1153-1161
Lin, K.; Chan, S.H.; Chan, J.Y. 2001: Tonic suppression of spontaneous baroreceptor reflex by endogenous angiotensins via AT(2) subtype receptors at nucleus reticularis ventrolateralis in the rat. Synapse 40(1): 85-94
Bell, C.; Seals, D.R.; Monroe, M.B.; Day, D.S.; Shapiro, L.F.; Johnson, D.G.; Jones, P.P. 2001: Tonic sympathetic support of metabolic rate is attenuated with age, sedentary lifestyle, and female sex in healthy adults. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 86(9): 4440-4444
Badoer, E.; Ng, C-Wai.; De Matteo, R. 2002: Tonic sympathoinhibition arising from the hypothalamic PVN in the conscious rabbit. Brain Research 947(1): 17-24
Ravel, S.; Legallet, E.; Apicella, P. 1999: Tonically active neurons in the monkey striatum do not preferentially respond to appetitive stimuli. Experimental Brain Research 128(4): 531-534
Apicella, P. 2002: Tonically active neurons in the primate striatum and their role in the processing of information about motivationally relevant events. European Journal of Neuroscience 16(11): 2017-2026
Hilfiker, S.; Czernik, A.J.; Greengard, P.; Augustine, G.J. 2001: Tonically active protein kinase A regulates neurotransmitter release at the squid giant synapse. Journal of Physiology 531(Pt 1): 141-146
Sumas, M.E.; Legos, J.J.; Nathan, D.; Lamperti, A.A.; Tuma, R.F.; Young, W.F. 2001: Tonicity of resuscitative fluids influences outcome after spinal cord injury. Neurosurgery 48(1): 167-72; Discussion 172-3
Lomez, E.S.L.; Araujo, R.C.; Bader, M.; Pesquero, J.B.; Pesquero, J.L. 2002: Tonin and kallikrein in the brain of transgenic rat line expressing human tissue kallikrein. Hypertension 39(2): 229-232
Araujo, R.C.; Lima, M.P.; Lomez, E.S.L.; Bader, M.; Pesquero, J.B.; Sumitani, M.; Pesquero, J.L. 2002: Tonin expression in the rat brain and tonin-mediated central production of angiotensin II. Physiology and Behavior 76(2): 327-333
Hildebrandt, H.; Schwendemann, G. 2001: Tonische und phasische Alertness: Ein oder zwei rechtshemisphaerische kortiko-subkortikale Netzwerke?. Aktuelle Neurologie 28(5): 219-227
Drapier, M.; Chauvin, C.; Thierry, B. 2002: Tonkean macaques ( Macaca tonkeana) find food sources from cues conveyed by group-mates. Animal Cognition 5(3): 159-165
Mazo, E.B.; Chepurov, D.A. 2003: Tonocardin (Doxasosine) in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms. Urologiya (Moscow) (3): 15-16
Snygg, J.; Casselbrant, A.; Pettersson, A.; Holm, M.; Fändriks, L.; Aneman, A. 2000: Tonometric assessment of jejunal mucosal nitric oxide formation in anaesthetized pigs. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 169(1): 39-45
Lampert, R.; Mohr, V.D. 1998: Tonometry and hepatovenous oximetry: Reliable monitoring or additional risks?. Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin 35(Suppl 1): 48-57
Campbell, M.E.; Van Aerde, J.E.; Cheung, P.Y.; Mayes, D.C. 1999: Tonometry to estimate intestinal perfusion in newborn piglets. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition 81(2): F105-F109
Berecki, G.; Eijken, M.; Van Iren, F.; Van Duijn, B. 2001: Tonoplast anion channel activity modulation by pH in Chara corallina. Journal of Membrane Biology 184(2): 131-141
Wild, J.M.; Kubke, M.F.; Carr, C.E. 2001: Tonotopic and somatotopic representation in the nucleus basalis of the barn owl, Tyto alba. Brain Behavior and Evolution 57(1): 39-62
Park, D.L.; Girod, D.A.; Durham, D. 1999: Tonotopic changes in 2-deoxyglucose activity in chick cochlear nucleus during hair cell loss and regeneration. Hearing Research 138(1-2): 45-55
Tecchio, F.; Bicciolo, G.; De Campora, E.; Pasqualetti, P.; Pizzella, V.; Indovina, I.; Cassetta, E.; Romani, G.L.; Rossini, P.M. 2000: Tonotopic cortical changes following stapes substitution in otosclerotic patients: A magnetoencephalographic study. Human Brain Mapping 10(1): 28-38
Cansino, S.; Ducorps, A.; Ragot, R. 2003: Tonotopic cortical representation of periodic complex sounds. Human Brain Mapping 20(2): 71-81
Pantelias, A.A.; Monsivais, P.; Rubel, E.W. 2001: Tonotopic map of potassium currents in chick auditory hair cells using an intact basilar papilla. Hearing Research 156(1-2): 81-94
Kakigi, A.; Hirakawa, H.; Harel, N.; Mount, R.J.; Harrison, R.V. 2000: Tonotopic mapping in auditory cortex of the adult chinchilla with amikacin-induced cochlear lesions. Audiology: Official Organ of the International Society of Audiology 39(3): 153-160
Bahu, S.J.; Kaltenbach, J.A.; Zhang, J.; Khariwala, S.S.; Afman, C.E.; Hnatiuk, M. 2001: Tonotopic mapping of c-fos expression in the dorsal cochlear nucleus of the hamster. Neuroscience Research Communications 29(2): 107-117
Esser, K.H.; Eiermann, A. 1999: Tonotopic organization and parcellation of auditory cortex in the FM-bat Carollia perspicillata. European Journal of Neuroscience 11(10): 3669-3682
Bilecen, D.; Scheffler, K.; Schmid, N.; Tschopp, K.; Seelig, J. 1998: Tonotopic organization of the human auditory cortex as detected by BOLD-FMRI. Hearing Research 126(1-2): 19-27
Köppl, C. 2001: Tonotopic projections of the auditory nerve to the cochlear nucleus angularis in the barn owl. Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: Jaro 2(1): 41-53
Fujioka, T.; Ross, B.; Okamoto, H.; Takeshima, Y.; Kakigi, R.; Pantev, C. 2003: Tonotopic representation of missing fundamental complex sounds in the human auditory cortex. European Journal of Neuroscience 18(2): 432-440
Ricci, A.J.; Gray-Keller, M.; Fettiplace, R. 2000: Tonotopic variations of calcium signalling in turtle auditory hair cells. Journal of Physiology 524 Pt 2: 423-436
Armerding, D.; Fuhlbrigge, R.C.; Kieffer, J.D.; Kupper, T.S. 2001: Tonsillar B cells do not express PSGL-1, but a significant fraction displays the cutaneous lymphocyte antigen and exhibits effective E- and P-selectin ligand activity. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 126(1): 78-90
Itoh, A.; Iwase, H.; Takatani, T.; Nakamura, I.; Hayashi, M.; Oba, K.; Hiki, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.; Okamoto, M. 2003: Tonsillar IgA1 as a possible source of hypoglycosylated IgA1 in the serum of IgA nephropathy patients. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation: Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 18(6): 1108-1114
Bhargava, D.; Bhusnurmath, B.; Sundaram, K.R.; Raman, R.; Al Okbi, H.M.; Al Abri, R.; Date, A. 2001: Tonsillar actinomycosis: a clinicopathological study. Acta Tropica 80(2): 163-168
Kerekhanjanarong, V.; Tang-On, N.; Supiyaphun, P.; Sastarasadhit, V. 2001: Tonsillar fossa steroid injection for reduction of the post-tonsillectomy pain. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 84(Suppl): S391-S395
Fujii, Mamoru; Et-Al 2001: Tonsillar metastasis from adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung. Jibi Inkoka Tokeibu Geka 73(7): 444-447
Duhaime, A.C.; Melamed, S.; Clancy, R.R. 2000: Tonsillar pain mimicking glossopharyngeal neuralgia as a complication of vagus nerve stimulation: Case report. Epilepsia 41(7): 903-905
Yamamoto, K.; Iwata, F.; Nakamura, A.; Iwashima, Y.; Miyaki, T.; Yamada, H.; Kurachi, M.; Sato, Y.; Tsukada, K.; Takeuchi, T.; Joh, T.; Yokoyama, Y.; Itoh, M. 2002: Tonsillar tuberculosis associated with pulmonary and laryngeal foci. Internal Medicine 41(8): 664-666
Søhoel, P.; Hallmo, P. 1998: Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in a private clinic. Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin Ny Raekke 118(24): 3749-3751
Peeters, A.; Van Rompaey, D.; Schmelzer, B.; Vidts, G.; Katz, S. 1999: Tonsillectomy and adenotomy as a one day procedure?. Acta Oto-Rhino-Laryngologica Belgica 53(2): 91-97
Homer, J.J.; Williams, B.T.; Semple, P.; Swanepoel, A.; Knight, L.C. 2000: Tonsillectomy by guillotine is less painful than by dissection. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 52(1): 25-29
Rasche, F.M.; Schwarz, A.; Keller, F. 1999: Tonsillectomy does not prevent a progressive course in IgA nephropathy. Clinical Nephrology 51(3): 147-152
Pisarev, V.F. 2000: Tonsillectomy effects on physical development of young men. Vestnik Otorinolaringologii 2: 41-42
Spinou, E.; Kubba, H.; Konstantinidis, I.; Johnston, A. 2002: Tonsillectomy for biopsy in children with unilateral tonsillar enlargement. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 63(1): 15-17
Randall, D.A.; Johnstone, P.A.; Foss, R.D.; Martin, P.J. 2000: Tonsillectomy in diagnosis of the unknown primary tumor of the head and neck. Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery: Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery 122(1): 52-55
Lazareff, J.A.; Galarza, M.; Gravori, T.; Spinks, T.J. 2002: Tonsillectomy without craniectomy for the management of infantile Chiari i malformation. Journal of Neurosurgery 97(5): 1018-1022
Rungby, J.A.; Rømeling, F.; Borum, P. 1999: Tonsillectomy: assessment of quality by consultation rate after discharge. Journal of Laryngology and Otology 113(2): 135-139
Silveira, H.; Soares, Jé.Silveira.; Lima, H.Almeida. 2003: Tonsillectomy: Cold dissection versus bipolar electrodissection. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 67(4): 345-351
Poyrazoglu, M.H.; Kurtoglu, S.; Demir, F.; Kendirci, M.; Akcakus, M.; Dilber, C. 2002: Tonsillektomi sonrasi cikan tiroid krizi vakasi. Cocuk Sagligi ve Hastaliklari Dergisi 45(1): 52-56
Levy, M.; Johnson, C.G.; Kraa, E. 2003: Tonsillopharyngitis caused by foodborne group a streptococcus: a prison-based outbreak. Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 36(2): 175-182
Harborne, J.B. 1998: Tony Swain and phytochemical methods. Phytochemistry 49(5): 1163-1164
Bell, E.Arthur 1998: Tony Swain and the scene today. Phytochemistry 49(5): 1179-1181
Wallin, E.; Gripenberg, J.; Andréasson, S. 2002: Too drunk for a beer? A study of overserving in Stockholm. Addiction 97(7): 901-907
Franklin, P.J.; Goldenberg, W.S.; Ducatman, A.M.; Franklin, E. 2000: Too hot to handle: An unusual exposure of HDI in specialty painters. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 37(4): 431-437
Holick, M.F. 2002: Too little vitamin D in premenopausal women: why should we care?. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 76(1): 3-4
Blackburn, M.R. 2003: Too much of a good thing: adenosine overload in adenosine-deaminase-deficient mice. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 24(2): 66-70
Reeves, R.H.; Baxter, L.L.; Richtsmeier, J.T. 2001: Too much of a good thing: Mechanisms of gene action in Down syndrome. Trends in Genetics: Tig 17(2): 83-88
McCaffery, P.J.; Adams, J.; Maden, M.; Rosa-Molinar, E. 2003: Too much of a good thing: Retinoic acid as an endogenous regulator of neural differentiation and exogenous teratogen. European Journal of Neuroscience 18(3): 457-472
Palatini, P. 2002: Too much of a good thing? A critique of overemphasis on the use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in clinical practice. Journal of Hypertension 20(10): 1917-1923
Horwood, A. 2003: Too much or too little: Neonatal ocular misalignment frequency can predict later abnormality. British Journal of Ophthalmology 87(9): 1142-1145
Janeck, A.S.; Calamari, J.E.; Riemann, B.C.; Heffelfinger, S.K. 2003: Too much thinking about thinking?: Metacognitive differences in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 17(2): 181-195
Smith, S. 2002: Too much too young? in Nepal more a case of too little, too young. International Journal of Epidemiology 31(3): 557-558
Scally, G. 2002: Too much too young? Teenage pregnancy is a public health, not a clinical, problem. International Journal of Epidemiology 31(3): 554-555
Lawlor, D.A.; Shaw, M. 2002: Too much too young? Teenage pregnancy is not a public health problem. International Journal of Epidemiology 31(3): 552-554
Guyatt, H.L.; Ochola, S.A.; Snow, R.W. 2002: Too poor to pay: charging for insecticide-treated bednets in highland Kenya. Tropical Medicine and International Health: Tm and Ih 7(10): 846-850
Arons, B.S.; Katz-Leavy, J.; Wittig, A.C.; Wayne Holden, E. 2002: Too young for ADHD: the potential role of systems of care. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: Jdbp 23(1 Suppl): S57-S63
Fraser, K.M. 2002: Too young for attention deficit disorder? Views from preschool. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: Jdbp 23(1 Suppl): S46-S50
Caffrey, C. 2000: Tool modification and use by an American Crow. Wilson Bulletin 112(2): 283-284
Richard-Hansen, C.; Bello, N.; Vie, J-Christophe. 1998: Tool use by a red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) towards a two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus). Primates 39(4): 545-548
Hunt, G.R. 2000: Tool use by the New Caledonian Crow Corvus moneduloides to obtain Cerambycidae from dead wood. Emu 100(2): 109-114
Sterling, E.J.; Povinelli, D.J. 1999: Tool use, aye-ayes, and sensorimotor intelligence. Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology 70(1): 8-16
Smirnov, A.V. 2003: Tool-assisted mesh generation based on a tissue-growth model. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 41(4): 494-497
Anonymous 1999: Tool-set for termite-fishing and honey extraction by wild chimpanzees in the Lossi forest, Congo. Primates 40(4): 619-627
Maravita, A.; Spence, C.; Kennett, S.; Driver, J. 2002: Tool-use changes multimodal spatial interactions between vision and touch in normal humans. Cognition 83(2): B25-B34
Ishibashi, H.; Hihara, S.; Takahashi, M.; Heike, T.; Yokota, T.; Iriki, A. 2002: Tool-use learning induces BDNF expression in a selective portion of monkey anterior parietal cortex. Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research 102(1-2): 110-112
Kimura, Y. 1999: Tool-using strategies by early hominids at bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution 37(6): 807-831
Rychlewski, L. 2001: Tool Shop: prerelease inspections for protein structure prediction servers. Bioinformatics 17(12): 1240-1241
Burns, G.A.P.C.; Khan, A.M.; Ghandeharizadeh, S.; O'Neill, M.A.; Chen, Y-Shin. 2003: Tools and approaches for the construction of knowledge models from the neuroscientific literature. Neuroinformatics 1(1): 81-109
Lefebvre, L.; Nicolakakis, N.; Boire, D. 2002: Tools and brains in birds. Behaviour y; 139(7): 939-973
Bateman, J.M.; Purton, S. 2000: Tools for chloroplast transformation in Chlamydomonas: Expression vectors and a new dominant selectable marker. Molecular and General Genetics: Mgg 263(3): 404-410
Williams, R.L.; Jaén, C.R. 2000: Tools for community-oriented primary care: use of key informant trees in eleven practices. Journal of the National Medical Association 92(4): 157-162
Eswar, N.; John, B.; Mirkovic, N.; Fiser, A.; Ilyin, V.A.; Pieper, U.; Stuart, A.C.; Marti-Renom, M.A.; Madhusudhan, M.S.; Yerkovich, B.; Sali, A. 2003: Tools for comparative protein structure modeling and analysis. Nucleic Acids Research 31(13): 3375-3380
Altincicek, B.; Hintz, M.; Sanderbrand, S.; Wiesner, J.; Beck, E.; Jomaa, H. 2000: Tools for discovery of inhibitors of the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) synthase and DXP reductoisomerase: an approach with enzymes from the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. FEMS Microbiology Letters 190(2): 329-333
Robidoux, P.Y.; Sunahara, G.I. 2000: Tools for ecotoxicological evaluation of contaminated soils and environmental biotechnologies. Vecteur Environnement 33(1): 34-45
Jacobson, L.D.; Cadrin, S.X.; Weinberg, J.R. 2002: Tools for estimating surplus production and FMSYin any stock assessment model. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 22(1): 326-338
Marinovic, A.C.; Mitch, W.E.; Price, S.R. 2000: Tools for evaluating ubiquitin (UbC) gene expression: characterization of the rat UbC promoter and use of an unique 3' mRNA sequence. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 274(2): 537-541
Schuhmeier, R.P.; Tewes, S.; Szentesi, P.; Melzer, W. 2000: Tools for flash-photolysis experiments on voltage-clamped muscle fibre segments. Pflugers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology 439(3): 385-393
Berg; Curry; Olshansky 1999: Tools for Groundwater Protection Planning: An Example from McHenry County, Illinois, USA. Environmental Management 23(3): 321-331
Land, B.R.; Wyttenbach, R.A.; Johnson, B.R. 2001: Tools for physiology labs: An inexpensive high-performance amplifier and electrode for extracellular recording. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 106(1): 47-55
Nadkarni, V.; Trigg, M. 2001: Tools for predicting risk of mortality in the ICU setting: do we need a crystal ball or rose colored glasses?. Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and Virtual Library 6: G43-G50
Van der Weyden, L.; Adams, D.J.; Bradley, A. 2002: Tools for targeted manipulation of the mouse genome. Physiological Genomics 11(3): 133-164
Alber, M.; Nüsslin, F. 2002: Tools for the analysis of dose optimization: I. Effect-volume histogram. Physics in Medicine and Biology 47(14): 2451-2458
Alber, M.; Birkner, M.; Nüsslin, F. 2002: Tools for the analysis of dose optimization: II. Sensitivity analysis. Physics in Medicine and Biology 47(19): N265-N270
Yang, H.; Jossinet, F.; Leontis, N.; Chen, L.; Westbrook, J.; Berman, H.; Westhof, E. 2003: Tools for the automatic identification and classification of RNA base pairs. Nucleic Acids Research 31(13): 3450-3460
Pym, A.S.; Brosch, R. 2000: Tools for the population genomics of the tubercle bacilli. Genome Research 10(12): 1837-1839
Lockhart, L.; Oliver, S.G.; Delneri, D. 2002: Tools for the study of genome rearrangements in laboratory and industrial yeast strains. Yeast 19(5): 441-448
Binoux, M. 2001: Tools now exist to measure circulating IGF-binding protein-3 proteolysis, to study its regulation and its effects on IGF-I bioavailability. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 86(10): 5088-5089
Mistry, D.N. 2002: Tools of the trade must be put to good use. BMJ 325(7366): 713
Cho, E.J.; Tao, Z.; Tang, Y.; Tehan, E.C.; Bright, F.V.; Hicks, W.L.J.; Gardella, J.A.J.; Hard, R. 2002: Tools to rapidly produce and screen biodegradable polymer and sol-gel-derived xerogel formulations. Applied Spectroscopy 56(11): 1385-1389
Carpiano, R.M.; Flocke, S.A.; Frank, S.H.; Stange, K.C. 2003: Tools, teamwork, and tenacity: An examination of family practice office system influences on preventive service delivery. Preventive Medicine 36(2): 131-140
Tang, M-Zhi.; Wang, Z-Feng.; Shi, Y-Liang. 2003: Toosendanin induces outgrowth of neuronal processes and apoptosis in PC12 cells. Neuroscience Research 45(2): 225-231
Wang, Z.F.; Shi, Y.L. 2001: Toosendanin-induced inhibition of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in CA1 pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampus. Neuroscience Letters 303(1): 13-16
Cobourne, M.T.; Sharpe, P.T. 2003: Tooth and jaw: Molecular mechanisms of patterning in the first branchial arch. Archives of Oral Biology 48(1): 1-14
Wayne, D.B.; Trajtenberg, C.P.; Hyman, D.J. 2001: Tooth and periodontal disease: a review for the primary-care physician. Southern Medical Journal 94(9): 925-932
Gault, P.C.; Warocquier-Clerout, R. 2002: Tooth auto-transplantation with double periodontal ligament stimulation to replace periodontally compromised teeth. Journal of Periodontology 73(5): 575-583
Fenton, M.B.; Waterman, J.M.; Roth, J.D.; Lopez, E.; Fienberg, S.E. 1998: Tooth breakage and diet: A comparison of bats and carnivorans. Journal of Zoology (London) 246(1): 83-88
Koutroumanidis, M.; Pearce, R.; Sadoh, D.R.; Panayiotopoulos, C.P. 2001: Tooth brushing-induced seizures: A case report. Epilepsia 42(5): 686-688
Wistuba, J.; Ehmcke, J.; Clemen, G.ün. 2003: Tooth development in Ambystoma mexicanum: phosphatase activities, calcium accumulation and cell proliferation in the tooth-forming tissues. Annals of Anatomy 185(3): 239-245
James, C.T.; Ohazama, A.; Tucker, A.S.; Sharpe, P.T. 2002: Tooth development is independent of a Hox patterning programme. Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists 225(3): 332-335
Matson, K.L.; Miller, S.E. 2003: Tooth discoloration after treatment with linezolid. Pharmacotherapy 23(5): 682-685
Ferretti, M.P. 1999: Tooth enamel structure in the hyaenid Chasmaporthetes lunensis lunensis from the Late Pliocene of Italy, with implications for feeding behavior. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 19(4): 767-770
Zou, S.J.; D'souza, R.N.; Ahlberg, T.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J. 2003: Tooth eruption and cementum formation in the Runx2/Cbfa1 heterozygous mouse. Archives of Oral Biology 48(9): 673-677
Hayashibara, T.; Komura, T.; Sobue, S.; Ooshima, T. 2000: Tooth eruption in a patient with craniometaphyseal dysplasia: Case report. Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine: Official Publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology 29(9): 460-462
Heikkinen, T.; Alvesalo, L.; Osborne, R.H.; Tienari, J. 2001: Tooth eruption symmetry in functional lateralities. Archives of Oral Biology 46(7): 609-617
Kawakami, J.; Muto, T.; Shigeo, K.; Takeda, S.; Kanazawa, M. 2003: Tooth exfoliation and necrosis of the crestal bone caused by the use of formocresol. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology and Endodontics 95(6): 736-738
Sabino, M.Ann.C.; Honore, P.; Rogers, S.D.; Mach, D.B.; Luger, N.M.; Mantyh, P.W. 2002: Tooth extraction-induced internalization of the substance P receptor in trigeminal nucleus and spinal cord neurons: Imaging the neurochemistry of dental pain. Pain 95(1-2): 175-186
Capik, I.; Ledecky, V.; Sevcik, A. 2000: Tooth fracture evaluation and endodontic treatment in dogs. Acta Veterinaria Brno 69(2): 115-122
Rieppel, O. 2001: Tooth implantation and replacement in Sauropterygia. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 75(2): 207-217
Zaher, H.; Rieppel, O. 1999: Tooth implantation and replacement in squamates, with special reference to Mosasaur lizards and snakes. American Museum Novitates 1999(3271): 1-19
Gilbert, G.H.; Duncan, R.P.; Rose, J.S.; Shelton, B.J. 2002: Tooth loss occurring at a place other than a health-care facility: 72-month incidence. Journal of Dental Research 81(12): 860-865
Palombo, M.-Rita; Curiel, V. 2003: Tooth microwear analysis of Mammuthus (Archidiskodon) meridionalis gromovi (Alexeeva & Garutt, 1965) from Montopoli (Lower Valdarno, Tuscany, Italy): A methodological approach. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 42(1-2): 151-155
Cairns, B.E.; Mcerlane, S.A.; Fragoso, M.C.; Soja, P.J. 1999: Tooth pulp- and facial hair mechanoreceptor-evoked responses of trigeminal sensory neurons are attenuated during ketamine anesthesia. Anesthesiology 91(4): 1025-1035
Coria Rodolfo, A.; Chiappe Luis, M. 2001: Tooth replacement in a sauropod premaxilla from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina. Ameghiniana 38(4): 463-466
Williams, M.E. 2001: Tooth retention in cladodont sharks: With a comparison between primitive grasping and swallowing, and modern cutting and gouging feeding mechanisms. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(2): 214-226
Olsen, C.B.; Tangchaitrong, K.; Chippendale, I.; Graham, H.K.; Dahl, H.M.; Stockigt, J.R. 1999: Tooth root resorption associated with a familial bone dysplasia affecting mother and daughter. Pediatric Dentistry 21(6): 363-367
Murray, P.E.; Lumley, P.J.; Ross, H.F.; Smith, A.J. 2000: Tooth slice organ culture for cytotoxicity assessment of dental materials. Biomaterials 21(16): 1711-1721
van der Merwe, M. 2000: Tooth succession in the greater cane rat Thryonomys swinderianus (Temminck, 1827). Journal of Zoology (London) 251(4): 541-545
Van der heyden, C.; Wautier, K.; Huysseune, A. 2001: Tooth succession in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Archives of Oral Biology 46(11): 1051-1058
Kaifu, Y. 2000: Tooth wear and compensatory modification of the anterior dentoalveolar complex in humans. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 111(3): 369-392
Kaifu, Y. 1999: Tooth wear of a medieval Japanese population from the Yoshimohama site. Bulletin of the National Science Museum Series D (Anthropology) (25): 41-48
Sarrett, D.C. 2002: Tooth whitening today. Journal of the American Dental Association 133(11): 1535-8; quiz 1541
Niederhagen, B.; Braumann, B.; Schmolke, C.; Appel, T.; von Lindern, J.J.; Bergé, S. 1999: Tooth-borne distraction of the mandible. An experimental study. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 28(6): 475-479
Niederhagen, B.; Braumann, B.; Bergé, S.; von Lindern, J.J.; Appel, T. 2000: Tooth-borne distraction to widen the mandible. Technical note. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 29(1): 27-28
Yamazaki, H.; Kunisada, T.; Miyamoto, A.; Tagaya, H.; Hayashi, S. 1999: Tooth-specific expression conferred by the regulatory sequences of rat dentin sialoprotein gene in transgenic mice. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 260(2): 433-440
Maupomé, G.; Shulman, J.D.; Clark, D.C.; Levy, S.M.; Berkowitz, J. 2001: Tooth-surface progression and reversal changes in fluoridated and no-longer-fluoridated communities over a 3-year period. Caries Research 35(2): 95-105
Abe, M.; Tamamura, Y.; Yamagishi, H.; Maeda, T.; Kato, J.; Tabata, M.J.; Srivastava, D.; Wakisaka, S.; Kurisu, K. 2002: Tooth-type specific expression of dHAND/Hand2: possible involvement in murine lower incisor morphogenesis. Cell and Tissue Research 310(2): 201-212
Hubbard, M.J.; Faught, M.J.; Carlisle, B.H.; Stockwell, P.A. 2001: ToothPrint, a proteomic database for dental tissues. Proteomics 1(1): 132-135
Jaeggi, T.; Lussi, A. 1999: Toothbrush abrasion of erosively altered enamel after intraoral exposure to saliva: an in situ study. Caries Research 33(6): 455-461
Koivusilta, L.; Honkala, S.; Honkala, E.; Rimpelä, A. 2003: Toothbrushing as part of the adolescent lifestyle predicts education level. Journal of Dental Research 82(5): 361-366
Wataha, J.C.; Lockwood, P.E.; Mettenburg, D.; Bouillaguet, S. 2003: Toothbrushing causes elemental release from dental casting alloys over extended intervals. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B Applied Biomaterials 65(1): 180-185
Stern, R.S.; Arndt, K.A. 1999: Top cited authors in dermatology: a citation study from 24 journals: 1982-1996. Archives of Dermatology 135(3): 299-302
Leducq, N.; Macouillard-Poulletier de Gannes, F.; Rotureau, M-Antoine.Belaud.; Belloc, F.; Voisin, P.; Canioni, P.; Diolez, P. 2002: Top down analysis ceramide-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions: Role of mitochondrial swelling. Molecular Biology Reports 29(1-2): 47-50
Ge, Y.; Lawhorn, B.G.; ElNaggar, M.; Strauss, E.; Park, J-Heon.; Begley, T.P.; McLafferty, F.W. 2002: Top down characterization of larger proteins (45 kDa) by electron capture dissociation mass spectrometry. Journal of the American Chemical Society 124(4): 672-678
Wright, N.A.; Poulsom, R. 2002: Top down or bottom up? Competing management structures in the morphogenesis of colorectal neoplasms. Gut 51(3): 306-308
Parmley, W.W. 2002: Top line mentality. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 39(5): 913
Landaud, S.; Latrille, E.; Corrieu, G. 2001: Top pressure and temperature control the fusel alcohol/ester ratio through yeast growth in beer fermentation. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 107(2): 107-117
Geering, F. 2000: Top quality drinking water treatment through low investment and operation costs. Journal of Water Supply Research and Technology - AQUA 49(1): 35-47
Diaz, E.; Rello, J. 2002: Top ten list in antibiotic policy in the ICU. Chest 122(2): 712-714
Sessler, C.N. 2001: Top ten list in sepsis. Chest 120(4): 1390-1393
Dequier, E.; Souid, S.; Pál, M.; Maróy, P.; Lepesant, J.A.; Yanicostas, C. 2001: Top-DER- and Dpp-dependent requirements for the Drosophila fos/kayak gene in follicular epithelium morphogenesis. Mechanisms of Development 106(1-2): 47-60
Kim, M.S.; Cave, K.R. 1999: Top-down and bottom-up attentional control: On the nature of interference from a salient distractor. Perception and Psychophysics 61(6): 1009-1023
Menge 2000: Top-down and bottom-up community regulation in marine rocky intertidal habitats. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 250(1-2): 257-289
Liang, H.; Wang, H. 2003: Top-down anticipatory control in prefrontal cortex. Theory in Biosciences 122(1): 70-86
Debener, S.; Herrmann, C.S.; Kranczioch, C.; Gembris, D.; Engel, A.K. 2003: Top-down attentional processing enhances auditory evoked gamma band activity. Neuroreport 14(5): 683-686
Hubble, D.; Harper, D. 2000: Top-down biological controls on tropical lake productivity. Lakes and Reservoirs Research and Management 5(3): 187-194
Ainscow, E.K.; Brand, M.D. 1999: Top-down control analysis of ATP turnover, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in rat hepatocytes. European Journal of Biochemistry 263(3): 671-685
Ruetz, C., R.-Iii; Newman, R., M.; Vondracek, B. 2002: Top-down control in a detritus-based food web: Fish, shredders, and leaf breakdown. Oecologia (Berlin) 132(2): 307-315
Blumenshine, S.C.; Hambright, K.D. 2003: Top-down control in pelagic systems: A role for invertebrate predation. Hydrobiologia 491: 347-356
Degans, Hanne; De Meester, Luc 2002: Top-down control of natural phyto- and bacterioplankton prey communities by Daphnia magna and by the natural zooplankton community of the hypertrophic Lake Blankaart. Hydrobiologia 1: 39-49
Benndorf, J.; Boeing, W.; Koop, J.; Neubauer, I. 2002: Top-down control of phytoplankton: The role of time scale, lake depth and trophic state. Freshwater Biology 47(12): 2282-2295
Yoshida, T.; Ban, S.; Takenouchi, T.; Aono, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Mikami, H.; Takano, K.; Imada, K.; Yasutomi, R.; Takeuchi, K. 2000: Top-down control of population dynamics of the dominant rotifers in two mesotrophic lakes in Hokkaido, Japan. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie 148(4): 481-498
Awh, E.; Matsukura, M.; Serences, J.T. 2003: Top-down control over biased competition during covert spatial orienting. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance 29(1): 52-63
Weidner, R.; Pollmann, S.; Müller, H.J.; von Cramon, D.Y. 2002: Top-down controlled visual dimension weighting: an event-related fMRI study. Cerebral Cortex 12(3): 318-328
Parker, S.; Murphy, D.R.; Schneider, B.A. 2002: Top-down gain control in the auditory system: Evidence from identification and discrimination experiments. Perception and Psychophysics 64(4): 598-615
Zimmerman, R.C.; Steller, D.L.; Kohrs, D.G.; Alberte, R.S. 2001: Top-down impact through a bottom-up mechanism. In situ effects of limpet grazing on growth, light requirements and survival of the eelgrass Zostera marina. Marine Ecology Progress Series 218: 127-140
Lee, Tai Sing 2002: Top-down influence in early visual processing: A Bayesian perspective. Physiology and Behavior 77(4-5): 645-650
Beck, D.M.; Palmer, S.E. 2002: Top-down influences on perceptual grouping. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance 28(5): 1071-1084
Taylor1, M.J.; Khan2, S.C. 2000: Top-down modulation of early selective attention processes in children. International Journal of Psychophysiology: Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 37(2): 135-147
Freeman, E.; Driver, J.; Sagi, D.; Zhaoping, L. 2003: Top-down modulation of lateral interactions in early vision: Does attention affect integration of the whole or just perception of the parts?. Current Biology: Cb 13(11): 985-989
Shih, I.M.; Wang, T.L.; Traverso, G.; Romans, K.; Hamilton, S.R.; Ben-Sasson, S.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B. 2001: Top-down morphogenesis of colorectal tumors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98(5): 2640-2645
Haydon, D.T.; Matthews, L.; Timms, R.; Colegrave, N. 2003: Top-down or bottom-up regulation of intra-host blood-stage malaria: do malaria parasites most resemble the dynamics of prey or predator?. Proceedings. Biological Sciences 270(1512): 289-298
Graneli, E.; Turner, J.T. 2002: Top-down regulation in ctenophore-copepod-ciliate-diatom-phytoflagellate communities in coastal waters: A mesocosm study. Marine Ecology Progress Series 239: 57-68
Hillebrand, H. 2002: Top-down versus bottom-up control of autotrophic biomass: A meta-analysis on experiments with periphyton. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 21(3): 349-369
Bond, C.S. 2003: TopDraw: a sketchpad for protein structure topology cartoons. Bioinformatics 19(2): 311-312
Barrett, K.; Miller, M.L.; Wilson, J.T. 2001: Tophaceous gout of the spine mimicking epidural infection: case report and review of the literature. Neurosurgery 48(5): 1170-2; Discussion 1172-3
Ali, T.; Hofford, R.; Mohammed, F.; Maharaj, D.; Sookhoo, S.; van Velzen, D. 1999: Tophaceous gout: a case of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. West Indian Medical Journal 48(3): 160-162
Lambrecht, N.; Nelson, S.D.; Seeger, L.; Bose, S. 2001: Tophaceous pseudogout: A pitfall in the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma. Diagnostic Cytopathology 25(4): 258-261
Parin, N.V.; Pakhorukov, N.P. 2003: Topic classification of bottom-associated fishes inhabiting the thalassic epimesobenthic zone of the world ocean (based on visual observations from manned submersibles). Voprosy Ichtiologii 43(1): 21-33
Abrahams, J.M.; Diamond, S.L.; Hurst, R.W.; Zager, E.L.; Grady, M.S. 2000: Topic review: Surface modifications enhancing biological activity of Guglielmi detachable coils in treating intracranial aneurysms. Surgical Neurology 54(1): 34-40; discussion 40-1
Missotten, L.; Richard, C.; Trinquand, C.; Study Group 2001: Topical 0.1% indomethacin solution versus topical 0.1% dexamethasone solution in the prevention of inflammation after cataract surgery. Ophthalmologica 215(1): 43-50
Grussendorf-Conen, E-I.; Jacobs, S.; Rübben, A.; Dethlefsen, U. 2002: Topical 5% imiquimod long-term treatment of cutaneous warts resistant to standard therapy modalities. Dermatology 205(2): 139-145
Clark, C.; Bryden, A.; Dawe, R.; Moseley, H.; Ferguson, J.; Ibbotson, S.H. 2003: Topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for cutaneous lesions: Outcome and comparison of light sources. Photodermatology Photoimmunology and Photomedicine 19(3): 134-141
Markham, T.; Collins, P. 2001: Topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for extensive scalp actinic keratoses. British Journal of Dermatology 145(3): 502-504
Cappugi, P.; Campolmi, P.; Mavilia, L.; Prignano, F.; Rossi, R. 2001: Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid and photodynamic therapy in dermatology: a minireview. Journal of ChemoTherapy 13(5): 494-502
Robinson, D.J.; de Bruijn, H.S.; de Wolf, W.J.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Star, W.M. 2000: Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy of hairless mouse skin using two-fold illumination schemes: PpIX fluorescence kinetics, photobleaching and biological effect. Photochemistry and Photobiology 72(6): 794-802
Hongcharu, W.; Taylor, C.R.; Chang, Y.; Aghassi, D.; Suthamjariya, K.; Anderson, R.R. 2000: Topical ALA-photodynamic therapy for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 115(2): 183-192
Fenig, E.; Brenner, B.; Katz, A.; Sulkes, J.; Lapidot, M.; Schachter, J.; Malik, H.; Sulkes, A.; Gutman, H. 2001: Topical Biafine and Lipiderm for the prevention of radiation dermatitis: a randomized prospective trial. Oncology Reports 8(2): 305-309
Sato, J.; Asakura, K.; Murakami, M.; Uede, T.; Kataura, A. 1999: Topical CTLA4-Ig suppresses ongoing mucosal immune response in presensitized murine model of allergic rhinitis. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 119(3): 197-204
Lopez, A.M.; Wallace, L.; Dorr, R.T.; Koff, M.; Hersh, E.M.; Alberts, D.S. 1999: Topical DMSO treatment for pegylated liposomal doxorubicin-induced palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia. Cancer ChemoTherapy and Pharmacology 44(4): 303-306
Redondo, P.; Bauzá, A. 1999: Topical N-acetylcysteine for lamellar ichthyosis. Lancet 354(9193): 1880
Holick, M.F.; Chimeh, F.N.; Ray, S. 2003: Topical PTH (1-34) is a novel, safe and effective treatment for psoriasis: A randomized self-controlled trial and an open trial. British Journal of Dermatology 149(2): 370-376
Seipelt, R.G.; Backer, C.L.; Mavroudis, C.; Stellmach, V.; Seipelt, I.M.; Cornwell, M.; Hernandez, J.; Crawford, S.E. 2003: Topical VEGF enhances healing of thoracic aortic anastomosis for coarctation in a rabbit model. Circulation 108(Suppl 1): Ii150-Ii154
Leeper, S.C.; Almatari, A.L.; Ingram, J.D.; Ferslew, K.E. 2000: Topical absorption of isopropyl alcohol induced cardiac and neurologic deficits in an adult female with intact skin. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 42(1): 15-17
Schmelz, M.; Weber, S.; Kress, M. 2000: Topical acetyl salicylate and dipyrone attenuate neurogenic protein extravasation in rat skin in vivo. Neuroscience Letters 290(1): 57-60
Tajti, J.; Szok, D.; Vécsei, L. 1999: Topical acetylsalicylic acid versus lidocaine for postherpetic neuralgia: results of a double-blind comparative clinical trial. Neurobiology 7(2): 103-108
Ioannides, D.; Rigopoulos, D.; Katsambas, A. 2002: Topical adapalene gel 0.1% vs. isotretinoin gel 0.05% in the treatment of acne vulgaris: A randomized open-label clinical trial. British Journal of Dermatology 147(3): 523-527
Balsari, A.; Rumio, C.; Morelli, D.; Sfondrini, L.; Nardini, E.; Barajon, I.; Ménard, S. 2001: Topical administration of a doxorubicin-specific monoclonal antibody prevents drug-induced mouth apoptosis in mice. British Journal of Cancer 85(12): 1964-1967
Van Rompay, K.K.A.; Schmidt, K.A.; Lawson, J.R.; Singh, R.; Bischofberger, N.; Marthas, M.L. 2002: Topical administration of low-dose tenofovir disoproxil fumarate to protect infant macaques against multiple oral exposures of low doses of simian immunodeficiency virus. Journal of Infectious Diseases 186(10): 1508-1513
Zhou-Liang; Wang-Shi-Ling; Ma-Jian-Li; Chai-Jia-Ke; Li-Li-Gen 2001: Topical administration of recombinant human epidermal growth factor for external use treatment of burn wounds: A multicenter study. Zhongguo Xinyao yu Linchuang Zazhi 20(5): 337-340
Welsh, B.M.; Mason, R.S.; Halliday, G.M. 1999: Topical all-trans retinoic acid augments ultraviolet radiation-induced increases in activated melanocyte numbers in mice. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 112(3): 271-278
de Keizer, R.J.W.; de Wolff-Rouendaal, D. 2003: Topical alpha-interferon in recurrent conjunctival papilloma. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 81(2): 193-196
Weber, S.U.; Thiele, J.J.; Han, N.; Luu, C.; Valacchi, G.; Weber, S.; Packer, L. 2003: Topical alpha-tocotrienol supplementation inhibits lipid peroxidation but fails to mitigate increased transepidermal water loss after benzoyl peroxide treatment of human skin. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 34(2): 170-176
Steidle, C.; Padma-Nathan, H.; Salem, S.; Tayse, N.; Thwing, D.; Fendl, J.; Yeager, J.; Harning, R. 2002: Topical alprostadil cream for the treatment of erectile dysfunction: A combined analysis of the Phase II program. Urology 60(6): 1077-1082
Browne, J.; Awad, I.; Plant, R.; Mcadoo, J.; Shorten, G. 1999: Topical amethocaine (AmetopTM) is superior to EMLA for intravenous cannulation. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia 46(11): 1014-1018
Jain, A.; Rutter, N. 2000: Topical amethocaine gel in the newborn infant: how soon does it work and how long does it last?. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition 83(3): F211-F214
Baroni, A.; Perfetto, B.; Buttini, G.; Catalanotti, P.; Gorga, F.; Tufano, M.A. 1999: Topical amikacin formulation induces fibroblast growth factor and cytokine release from human dermal fibroblasts. Archives of Dermatological Research 291(5): 296-299
Sood, A.K.; Gupta, B.; Chugh, P. 1999: Topical amiloride accelerates healing and delays neovascularization in mechanically produced corneal ulcers in rabbits. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology 21(7): 491-497
Lancaster, J.L.; Makura, Z.G.; Porter, G.; McCormick, M. 1999: Topical aminoglycosides in the management of active mucosal chronic suppurative otitis media. Journal of Laryngology and Otology 113(1): 10-12
Gerner, P.; Kao, G.; Srinivasa, V.; Narang, S.; Wang, G.Kuo. 2003: Topical amitriptyline in healthy volunteers. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 28(4): 289-293
Boettcher, H.; Bewig, B.; Hirt, S.W.; Möller, F.; Cremer, J. 2000: Topical amphotericin B application in severe bronchial aspergillosis after lung transplantation: report of experiences in 3 cases. Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation: the Official Publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 19(12): 1224-1227
Kwok, A.K.; Wong, T.H.; Lam, D.S. 2000: Topical analgesia during retinal laser photocoagulation. British Journal of Ophthalmology 84(8): 938
Zabawski, E.J.; Cockerell, C.J. 1998: Topical and intralesional cidofovir: A review of pharmacology and therapeutic effects. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 39(5 Pt 1): 741-745
Casas, A.; Fukuda, H.; Meiss, R.; Batlle, A.M. 1999: Topical and intratumoral photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid in a subcutaneous murine mammary adenocarcinoma. Cancer Letters 141(1-2): 29-38
Mckenzie, C.; Thim, L.; Parsons, M.E. 2000: Topical and intravenous administration of trefoil factors protect the gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced injury in the rat. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 14(8): 1033-1040
Lue, T.F. 1999: Topical and oral agents for erectile dysfunction. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 98(4): 233-241
Gustafsson, B.; Miller-Larsson, A.; Persson, C.G. 2001: Topical and oral anti-inflammatory activity of budesonide compared with oral prednisolone in an animal model using allergen-induced gut mucosal exudation of plasma as a marker. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 36(10): 1062-1066
Zucchelli, G.; Sforza, N.M.; Clauser, C.; Cesari, C.; De Sanctis, M. 1999: Topical and systemic antimicrobial therapy in guided tissue regeneration. Journal of Periodontology 70(3): 239-247
Rigal-Sastourne, J.C.; Roux, L.; Bidaux, F.; May, F.; Pariselle, J.; Renard, J.P.; Maurin, J.F. 1998: Topical anesthesia and intracameral lidocaine for phacoemulsification: Report of 180 cases. Medecine et Armees 26(5): 381-386
Zullo, F.; Pellicano, M.; Stigliano, C.M.; Di Carlo, C.; Fabrizio, A.; Nappi, C. 1999: Topical anesthesia for office hysteroscopy. A prospective, randomized study comparing two modalities. Journal of Reproductive Medicine 44(10): 865-869
Resch, K.; Schilling, C.; Borchert, B.D.; Klatzko, M.; Uden, D. 1998: Topical anesthesia for pediatric lacerations: A randomized trial of lidocaine-epinephrine-tetracaine solution versus gel. Annals of Emergency Medicine 32(6): 693-697
Sauder, G.; Jonas, J.B. 2002: Topical anesthesia for penetrating trabeculectomy. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 240(9): 739-742
Yepez, J.; Cedeño de Yepez, J.; Arevalo, J.F. 2000: Topical anesthesia in posterior vitrectomy. Retina 20(1): 41-45
Nishide, T.; Kadonosono, K.; Itoh, N.; Ohno, S. 1999: Topical anesthesia with additional intracameral irrigation of 0.2% lidocaine during cataract surgery in high myopic eyes. Rinsho Ganka 53(5): 921-922
Cooke, W.H. 2000: Topical anesthetic before microneurography decreases pain without affecting sympathetic traffic. Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical 86(1-2): 120-126
Baricevic, D.; Sosa, S.; Della Loggia, R.; Tubaro, A.; Simonovska, B.; Krasna, A.; Zupancic, A. 2001: Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Salvia officinalis L. leaves: the relevance of ursolic acid. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 75(2-3): 125-132
Casacó, A.; Ledón, N.; González, A.; Merino, N.; Pérez, R. 1999: Topical anti-inflammatory activity of human recombinant epidermal growth factor. Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology 12(1-2): 79-84
Balyasinskaya, G.L.; Bogomilsky, M.R. 2003: Topical antibacterial drugs in the therapy of inflammatory diseases of the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, and paranasal sinuses in children. Rossiiskii Vestnik Perinatologii i Pediatrii 48(2): 48-49
Vergis, E.N.; Demas, P.N.; Vaccarello, S.J.; Yu, V.L. 2001: Topical antibiotic prophylaxis for bacteremia after dental extractions. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology and Endodontics 91(2): 162-165
De A Nishioka, S. 2000: Topical antibiotic use and circumcision-associated neonatal tetanus: protective factor or indicator of good wound care?. International Journal of Epidemiology 29(3): 600-601
Maurice-Williams, R.S.; Pollock, J. 1999: Topical antibiotics in neurosurgery: A re-evaluation of the Malis technique. British Journal of Neurosurgery 13(3): 312-315
Morar, P.; Makura, Z.; Jones, A.; Baines, P.; Selby, A.; Hughes, J.; van Saene, R. 2000: Topical antibiotics on tracheostoma prevents exogenous colonization and infection of lower airways in children. Chest 117(2): 513-518
Mendonca, P.; Freitas, J., C. 2000: Topical antiedematous activity of the organic extract of Liagora farinosa algae (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales). Ciencia e Cultura (Sao Paulo) 52(3): 175-178
Lopez, L.; Berkowitz, R.; Zlotnik, H.; Moss, M.; Weinstein, P. 1999: Topical antimicrobial therapy in the prevention of early childhood caries. Pediatric Dentistry 21(1): 9-11
Parashar, U.D.; Bennett, J.V.; Boring, J.R.; Hlady, W.G. 1998: Topical antimicrobials applied to the umbilical cord stump: a new intervention against neonatal tetanus. International Journal of Epidemiology 27(5): 904-908
Gornall, R.J.; Beynon, D.W.; Shepherd, N.J.; Boyd, I.E. 1999: Topical antiseptic agent after large loop excision of the transformation zone: results of a randomised controlled trial. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 19(5): 509-510
Friese, K.; Neumann, G.; Siebert, J. 2003: Topical antiseptics as an alternative in the treatment of acute vulvovaginal candidosis. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 268(3): 194-197
Juzeniene, A.; Juzenas, P.; Iani, V.; Moan, J. 2002: Topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid and its methylester, hexylester and octylester derivatives: Considerations for dosimetry in mouse skin model. Photochemistry and Photobiology 76(3): 329-334
van den Akker, J.T.; Iani, V.; Star, W.M.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Moan, J. 2000: Topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid hexyl ester and 5-aminolevulinic acid to normal nude mouse skin: Differences in protoporphyrin IX fluorescence kinetics and the role of the stratum corneum. Photochemistry and Photobiology 72(5): 681-689
Liu, L.J.; Watabe, S.; Yang, J.; Hamajima, K.; Ishii, N.; Hagiwara, E.; Onari, K.; Xin, K.Q.; Okuda, K. 2001: Topical application of HIV DNA vaccine with cytokine-expression plasmids induces strong antigen-specific immune responses. Vaccine 20(1-2): 42-48
Wilgus, T.A.; Ross, M.S.; Parrett, M.L.; Oberyszyn, T.M. 2000: Topical application of a selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor suppresses UVB mediated cutaneous inflammation. Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators 62(4): 367-384
Zhang, J.M.; Homma, Y.; Ackerman, W.E.; Brull, S.J. 2001: Topical application of acidic bupivacaine to the lumbar ganglion induces mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat. Anesthesia and Analgesia 93(2): 466-71 4th Contents Page
de Jalón, E.G.; Blanco-Príeto, M.J.; Ygartua, P.; Santoyo, S. 2001: Topical application of acyclovir-loaded microparticles: Quantification of the drug in porcine skin layers. Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society 75(1-2): 191-197
Ichioka, S.; Nakatsuka, T.; Ohura, N.; Sato, Y.; Harii, K. 2000: Topical application of amrinone (a selective phosphodiesterase IIi inhibitor) for relief of vasospasm. Journal of Surgical Research 93(1): 149-155
Shigematsu, K.; Yasuhara, H.; Shigematsu, H. 2001: Topical application of antiangiogenic agent AGM-1470 suppresses anastomotic intimal hyperplasia after ePTFE grafting in a rabbit model. Surgery 129(2): 220-230
Isgro, F.; Stanisch, O.; Kiessling, A.-H.; Gürler, S.; Hellstern, P.; Saggau, W. 2002: Topical application of aprotinin in cardiac surgery. Perfusion 17(5): 347-351
Zucoloto, S.; Romanello, L.M.F.; Garcia, S.B.; Sobreira, L.F.R.; Barbosa, A.J.A.; Troncon, L.E.A. 2002: Topical application of benzalkonium chloride to the stomach serosa increases gastric emptying time, acid secretion, serum gastrin and size of the mucosa. APMIS 110(11): 795-801
Shirai, A.; Tsunoda, H.; Tamaoki, T.; Kamiya, T. 2001: Topical application of cyclosporin A induces rapid-remodeling of damaged anagen hair follicles produced in cyclophosphamide administered mice. Journal of Dermatological Science 27(1): 7-13
Zhang-Hao; Chen-Xue-Ming; Wang-Shi-Li; He-Shi-Fang; Xiao-Kuan-Lin; Jin-Wei 2001: Topical application of diclofenac emulgel in treating acute pharyngeal inflammation. Zhongguo Xinyao yu Linchuang Zazhi 20(6): 484-486
Khalil, M.H.; Marcelletti, J.F.; Katz, L.R.; Katz, D.H.; Pope, L.E. 2000: Topical application of docosanol- or stearic acid-containing creams reduces severity of phenol burn wounds in mice. Contact Dermatitis 43(2): 79-81
Mccleane, G. 2000: Topical application of doxepin hydrochloride, capsaicin and a combination of both produces analgesia in chronic human neuropathic pain: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 49(6): 574-579
Winkler, T.; Sharma, H.S.; Gordh, T.; Badgaiyan, R.D.; Stålberg, E.; Westman, J. 2002: Topical application of dynorphin A (1-17) antiserum attenuates trauma induced alterations in spinal cord evoked potentials, microvascular permeability disturbances, edema formation and cell injury: an experimental study in the rat using electrophysiological and morphological approaches. Amino Acids 23(1-3): 273-281
Purser, S.; Royse, C.F.; Velkov, H.A.; Roberts, L.F. 2000: Topical application of ethanol to the tonsillar bed immediately following tonsillectomy does not improve post-operative analgesia. Journal of Laryngology and Otology 114(9): 671-674
Nishihira, S. 2000: Topical application of fluorescein dye for endoscopic repairment of CSF rhinorrhea. Jibi Inkoka Tokeibu Geka 72(4): 291-294
Joussen, A.M.; Kruse, F.E.; Völcker, H.E.; Kirchhof, B. 1999: Topical application of methotrexate for inhibition of corneal angiogenesis. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 237(11): 920-927
Zhang, W.R.; Kitagawa, H.; Hayashi, T.; Sasaki, C.; Sakai, K.; Warita, H.; Shiro, Y.; Suenaga, H.; Ohmae, H.; Tsuji, S.; Itoh, T.; Nishimura, O.; Nagasaki, H.; Abe, K. 1999: Topical application of neurotrophin-3 attenuates ischemic brain injury after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Brain Research 842(1): 211-214
Van Rensburg, C.E.J.; Malfeld, S.C.K.; Dekker, J. 2001: Topical application of oxifulvic acid suppresses the cutaneous immune response in mice. Drug Development Research 53(1): 29-32
Bekersky, I.; Boswell, G.; Ohara, K.; Kuroda, Y.; Sambuco, C. 1999: Topical application of tacrolimus ointment did not alter the cutaneous pigmentation of Yucatan micropigs. International Journal of Toxicology 18(1): 19-21
Gao, F.P.; Wang Hai, Y. M.D.; Gao Wei Qi 2002: Topical application of tranexamic acid and amikacin in preventing hemorrhage after tonsillectomy. Zhongguo Xinyao yu Linchuang Zazhi 21(8): 479-480
Epstein, J.B.; Gorsky, M. 1999: Topical application of vitamin A to oral leukoplakia: A clinical case series. Cancer 86(6): 921-927
Crowe, M.J.; McNeill, R.B.; Schlemm, D.J.; Greenhalgh, D.G.; Keller, S.J. 1999: Topical application of yeast extract accelerates the wound healing of diabetic mice. Journal of Burn Care and Rehabilitation 20(2): 155-162
Spratley, J.E.; Hellström, S.O.; Mattsson, C.K.; Pais-Clemente, M. 2001: Topical ascorbic acid reduces myringosclerosis in perforated tympanic membranes. A study in the rat. Annals of Otology Rhinology and Laryngology 110(6): 585-591
Epstein, J.B.; Gorsky, M.; Epstein, M.S.; Nantel, S. 2001: Topical azathioprine in the treatment of immune-mediated chronic oral inflammatory conditions: a series of cases. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology and Endodontics 91(1): 56-61
Zhang, Z.; Hefferan, M.P.; Loomis, C.W. 2001: Topical bicuculline to the rat spinal cord induces highly localized allodynia that is mediated by spinal prostaglandins. Pain. Supplement 92(3): 351-361
Hung, T.; Moore-Gillon, V.; Hern, J.; Hinton, A.; Patel, N. 2002: Topical bupivacaine in paediatric day-case tonsillectomy: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Journal of Laryngology and Otology 116(1): 33-36
Vernia, P.; Fracasso, P.L.; Casale, V.; Villotti, G.; Marcheggiano, A.; Stigliano, V.; Pinnaro, P.; Bagnardi, V.; Caprilli, R. 2000: Topical butyrate for acute radiation proctitis: Randomised, crossover trial. Lancet 356(9237): 1232-1235
Vernia, P.; Annese, V.; Bresci, G.; d'Albasio, G.; D'Incà, R.; Giaccari, S.; Ingrosso, M.; Mansi, C.; Riegler, G.; Valpiani, D.; Caprilli, R. 2003: Topical butyrate improves efficacy of 5-ASA in refractory distal ulcerative colitis: Results of a multicentre trial. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 33(3): 244-248
Ameen, M.; Exarchou, V.; Chu, A.C. 2001: Topical calcipotriol as monotherapy and in combination with psoralen plus ultraviolet A in the treatment of vitiligo. British Journal of Dermatology 145(3): 476-479
Molin, L. 1999: Topical calcipotriol combined with phototherapy for psoriasis: The results of two randomized trials and a review of the literature. Dermatology (Basel) 198(4): 375-381
Gollnick, H.; Altmeyer, P.; Kaufmann, R.; Ring, J.; Christophers, E.; Pavel, S.; Ziegler, J. 2002: Topical calcipotriol plus oral fumaric acid is more effective and faster acting than oral fumaric acid monotherapy in the treatment of severe chronic plaque psoriasis vulgaris. Dermatology 205(1): 46-53
Lebwohl, M.; Quijije, J.; Gilliard, J.; Rollin, T.; Watts, O. 2003: Topical calcitriol is degraded by ultraviolet light. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 121(3): 594-595
Rizova, E.; Corroller, M. 2001: Topical calcitriol--studies on local tolerance and systemic safety. British Journal of Dermatology 144(Suppl): 3-10
Bereiter, D.A.; Bereiter, D.F.; Hirata, H. 2002: Topical cannabinoid agonist, WIN55,212-2, reduces cornea-evoked trigeminal brainstem activity in the rat. Pain. Supplement 99(3): 547-556
Dogrul, A.; Gul, H.; Akar, A.; Yildiz, O.; Bilgin, F.; Guzeldemir, E. 2003: Topical cannabinoid antinociception: Synergy with spinal sites. Pain 105(1-2): 11-16
Yesilyurt, O.; Dogrul, A.; Gul, H.; Seyrek, M.; Kusmez, O.; Ozkan, Y.; Yildiz, O. 2003: Topical cannabinoid enhances topical morphine antinociception. Pain 105(1-2): 303-308
Nolano, M.; Simone, D.A.; Wendelschafer-Crabb, G.; Johnson, T.; Hazen, E.; Kennedy, W.R. 1999: Topical capsaicin in humans: Parallel loss of epidermal nerve fibers and pain sensation. Pain 81(1-2): 135-145
Lysy, J.; Sistiery-Ittah, M.; Israelit, Y.; Shmueli, A.; Strauss-Liviatan, N.; Mindrul, V.; Keret, D.; Goldin, E. 2003: Topical capsaicin--a novel and effective treatment for idiopathic intractable pruritus ani: a randomised, placebo controlled, crossover study. Gut 52(9): 1323-1326
Butelman, E.R.; Ball, J.W.; Harris, T.J.; Kreek, M.J. 2003: Topical capsaicin-induced allodynia in unanesthetized primates: pharmacological modulation. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 306(3): 1106-1114
Smith, A.G.; Dovey, G.J.; Cartwright, R.A. 2000: Topical chloramphenicol and the risk of acute leukaemia in adults. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 9(3): 215-219
Lam, R.F.; Lai, J.S.M.; Ng, J.S.K.; Rao, S.K.; Law, R.W.K.; Lam, D.S.C. 2002: Topical chloramphenicol for eye infections. Hong Kong Medical Journal 8(1): 44-47
Schürmann, D.; Bergmann, F.; Temmesfeld-Wollbrück, B.; Grobusch, M.P.; Suttorp, N. 2000: Topical cidofovir is effective in treating extensive penile condylomata acuminata. Aids 14(8): 1075-1076
Kosrirukvongs, P.; Buranapongs, W. 2000: Topical ciprofloxacin for bacterial corneal ulcer. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 83(7): 776-782
Jemec, G.B.; Wendelboe, P. 1998: Topical clindamycin versus systemic tetracycline in the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 39(6): 971-974
Grimaître, M.; Etienne, A.; Fathi, M.; Piletta, P.A.; Saurat, J.H. 2000: Topical colchicine therapy for actinic keratoses. Dermatology 200(4): 346-348
Yamanaka, N.; Yamanaka, J.; Tanaka, T.; Tanaka, W.; Yasui, C.; Ando, T.; Okamoto, E. 1999: Topical cooling assisted hepatic resection of segment 7 and 8 oriented by en-bloc interruption of the targeted portal pedicles. Hepato-Gastroenterology 46(25): 417-424
Hayakawa, K.; Gocho, K.; Yamaki, K.; Sakuragi, S. 2003: Topical corticosteroid cream was effective for alopecia in a case of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. Rinsho Ganka 57(4): 545-548
Charman, C.R.; Morris, A.D.; Williams, H.C. 2000: Topical corticosteroid phobia in patients with atopic eczema. British Journal of Dermatology 142(5): 931-936
Campbell, C.A.; Cooke, C.A.; Weerasinghe, S.D.S.; Sketris, I.S.; McLean-Veysey, P.R.; Skedgel, C.D. 2003: Topical corticosteroid prescribing patterns following changes in drug benefit status. Annals of PharmacoTherapy 37(6): 787-793
Schmuth, M.; Wimmer, M.A.; Hofer, S.; Sztankay, A.; Weinlich, G.; Linder, D.M.; Elias, P.M.; Fritsch, P.O.; Fritsch, E. 2002: Topical corticosteroid therapy for acute radiation dermatitis: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study. British Journal of Dermatology 146(6): 983-991
Parikh, A.; Scadding, G.K.; Darby, Y.; Baker, R.C. 2001: Topical corticosteroids in chronic rhinosinusitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray. Rhinology 39(2): 75-79
Reinhard, T.; Sundmacher, R. 1999: Topical cyclosporin A in thygeson's superficial punctate keratitis. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 237(2): 109-112
Perry, H.D.; Doshi-Carnevale, S.; Donnenfeld, E.D.; Kornstein, H.S. 2003: Topical cyclosporine a 0.5% as a possible new treatment for superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis. Ophthalmology 110(8): 1578-1581
Beall, H., D.; Sloan, K., B. 2002: Topical delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by 1,3-bisalkylcarbonyl-5-FU prodrugs. International Journal of Pharmaceutics (Kidlington) 231(1): 43-49
Beall, H.D.; Sloan, K.B. 2001: Topical delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by 3-alkylcarbonyl-5-FU prodrugs. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 217(1-2): 127-137
Roberts, W.J.; Sloan, K.B. 2003: Topical delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by 3-alkylcarbonyloxymethyl-5-FU prodrugs. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 92(5): 1028-1036
Sloan, K.B.; Wasdo, S.; Ezike-Mkparu, U.; Murray, T.; Nickels, D.; Singh, S.; Shanks, T.; Tovar, J.; Ulmer, K.; Waranis, R. 2003: Topical delivery of 5-fluorouracil and 6-mercaptopurine by their alkylcarbonyloxymethyl prodrugs from water: Vehicle effects on design of prodrugs. Pharmaceutical Research 20(4): 639-645
Dias, M.; Farinha, A.; Faustino, E.; Hadgraft, J.; Pais, J.; Toscano, C. 1999: Topical delivery of caffeine from some commercial formulations. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 182(1): 41-47
Wallace, M.S.; Ridgeway, B.; Jun, E.; Schulteis, G.; Rabussay, D.; Zhang, L. 2001: Topical delivery of lidocaine in healthy volunteers by electroporation, electroincorporation, or iontophoresis: an evaluation of skin anesthesia. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 26(3): 229-238
Babiuk, S.; Baca-Estrada, M.E.; Pontarollo, R.; Foldvari, M. 2002: Topical delivery of plasmid DNA using biphasic lipid vesicles (Biphasix). Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 54(12): 1609-1614
Tran, C.; Sorg, O.; Carraux, P.; Didierjean, L.; Saurat, J.H. 2001: Topical delivery of retinoids counteracts the UVB-induced epidermal vitamin A depletion in hairless mouse. Photochemistry and Photobiology 73(4): 425-431
Sasaki, H.; Kashiwagi, S.; Mukai, T.; Nishida, K.; Nakamura, J.; Nakashima, M.; Ichikawa, M. 1999: Topical delivery system of ophthalmic drugs by periocular injection with viscous solution. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 22(9): 961-965
Yamada, M.; Ogata, M.; Kawai, M.; Mochizuki, H.; Mashima, Y. 2002: Topical diclofenac sodium decreases the substance P content of tears. Archives of Ophthalmology 120(1): 51-54
Grace, D.; Rogers, J.; Skeith, K.; Anderson, K. 1999: Topical diclofenac versus placebo: a double blind, randomized clinical trial in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Journal of Rheumatology 26(12): 2659-2663
Carapeti, E.A.; Kamm, M.A.; Evans, B.K.; Phillips, R.K. 1999: Topical diltiazem and bethanechol decrease anal sphincter pressure without side effects. Gut 45(5): 719-722
Yoshizawa, Y.; Matsui, H.; Izaki, S.; Kitamura, K.; Maibach, H.I. 2000: Topical dinitrochlorobenzene therapy in the treatment of refractory atopic dermatitis: systemic immunotherapy. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 42(2 Part 1): 258-262
Mccleane, G.J. 2000: Topical doxepin hydrochloride reduces neuropathic pain: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Pain Clinic 12(1): 47-50
Lee, S.; Kollias, N.; Mcauliffe, D.J.; Flotte, T.J.; Doukas, A.G. 1999: Topical drug delivery in humans with a single photomechanical wave. Pharmaceutical Research 16(11): 1717-1721