+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Demonstration of long-range GABAergic connections distributed throughout the mouse neocortex

Demonstration of long-range GABAergic connections distributed throughout the mouse neocortex

European Journal of Neuroscience 21(6): 1587-1600

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons in the neocortex have been mainly regarded as interneurons and thought to provide local interactions. Recently, however, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) immunocytochemistry combined with retrograde labeling experiments revealed the existence of GABAergic projection neurons in the neocortex. We further studied the network of GABAergic projection neurons in the neocortex by using GAD67-green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in mice for retrograde labeling and a novel neocortical GABAergic neuron labeling method for axon tracing. Many GFP-positive neurons were retrogradely labeled after Fast Blue injection into the primary somatosensory, motor and visual cortices. These neurons were labeled not only around the injection site, but also at a long distance from the injection site. Of the retrogradely labeled GABAergic neurons remote from the injection sites, the vast majority (91%) exhibited somatostatin immunoreactivity, and were preferentially distributed in layer II, layer VI and in the white matter. In addition, most of GABAergic projection neurons were positive for neuropeptide Y (82%) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (71%). We confirmed the long-range projections by tracing GFP-labeled GABAergic neurons with axon branches traveled rostro-caudally and medio-laterally. Axon branches could be traced up to 2 mm. Some (n = 2 of 4) were shown to cross the areal boundaries. The GABAergic projection neurons preferentially received neocortical inputs. From these results, we conclude that GABAergic projection neurons are distributed throughout the neocortex and are part of a corticocortical network.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 011929538

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 15845086

DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.03989.x

Related references

Long-Range GABAergic Connections Distributed throughout the Neocortex and their Possible Function. Frontiers in Neuroscience 4: 202, 2010

Long-range GABAergic projection neurons in the cat neocortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology 503(3): 421-431, 2007

Shortest paths on systems with power-law distributed long-range connections. Physical Review. E Statistical Nonlinear and Soft Matter Physics 65(5 Pt 2): 056709, 2002

Excitatory unitary connections from pyramidal cells to GABAergic fast-spiking interneurons in the rat neocortex. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 24(1-2): 511, 1998

A big-world network in ASD: dynamical connectivity analysis reflects a deficit in long-range connections and an excess of short-range connections. Neuropsychologia 49(2): 254-263, 2011

The distribution of long range connections in the mouse cortex. Neuroscience Letters (Suppl. 14): S146, 1983

Impaired long-range synchronization of gamma oscillations in the neocortex of a mouse lacking Kv3.2 potassium channels. Journal of Neurophysiology 108(3): 827-833, 2012

PTEN regulation of local and long-range connections in mouse auditory cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 32(5): 1643-1652, 2012

Transplantation of GABAergic neurons into adult mouse neocortex. Experimental Neurology 194(1): 1-11, 2005

Genetic dissection of GABAergic neural circuits in mouse neocortex. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 8: 8, 2014

Immunocytochemical demonstration of GABAergic synaptic connections in rat substantia nigra after different lesions of the striatonigral projection. Brain Research 461(1): 127-142, 1988

Decoding the transcriptional basis for GABAergic interneuron diversity in the mouse neocortex. European Journal of Neuroscience 34(10): 1542-1552, 2011

Resonance properties of GABAergic interneurons in immature GAD67-GFP mouse neocortex. Brain Research 1548: 1-11, 2014

Functional organization, connections, and architecture of the neocortex in the mouse. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 27(1): 125, 2001

Two calretinin-positive GABAergic cell types in layer 2/3 of the mouse neocortex provide different forms of inhibition. Cerebral Cortex 19(6): 1345-1359, 2009