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Engineered osteochondral grafts using biphasic composite solid free-form fabricated scaffolds

Engineered osteochondral grafts using biphasic composite solid free-form fabricated scaffolds

Tissue Engineering 10(9-10): 1376-1385

Tissue engineering has provided an alternative to traditional strategies to repair cartilage damaged by injury or degenerative disease. A successful strategy to engineer osteochondral tissue will mimic the natural contour of the articulating surface, achieve native mechanical properties and functional load-bearing ability, and lead to integration with host cartilage and underlying subchondral bone. Image-based design ( IBD) and solid free-form (SFF) fabrication can be used to generate scaffolds that are load bearing and match articular geometry. The objective of this study was to utilize materials and biological factors in an integrated approach to regenerate a multitissue interface. Biphasic composite scaffolds manufactured by IBD and SFF fabrication were used to simultaneously generate bone and cartilage in discrete regions and provide for the development of a stable interface between cartilage and subchondral bone. Poly-L-lactic acid/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds were differentially seeded with fibroblasts transduced with an adenovirus expressing bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) in the ceramic phase and fully differentiated chondrocytes in the polymeric phase. After subcutaneous implantation into mice, the biphasic scaffolds promoted the simultaneous growth of bone, cartilage, and a mineralized interface tissue. Within the ceramic phase, the pockets of tissue generated included blood vessels, marrow stroma, and adipose tissue. This combination of IBD and SFF-fabricated biphasic scaffolds with gene and cell therapy is a promising approach to regenerate osteochondral defects.

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Accession: 012038900

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PMID: 15588398

DOI: 10.1089/ten.2004.10.1376

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