+ Site Statistics
References:
52,654,530
Abstracts:
29,560,856
PMIDs:
28,072,755
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn

+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Gender differences in unipolar depression: a general population survey of adults between age 18 to 64 of German nationality



Gender differences in unipolar depression: a general population survey of adults between age 18 to 64 of German nationality



Journal of Affective Disorders 77(3): 203-211



Background: Several studies from different epidemiological backgrounds have shown that unipolar depression is more prevalent in females than in males. This study examines gender differences in depression in a sample of 4075 probands recruited representatively from the general population in the northern German epidemiological catchment area of Luebeck. Methods: Probands were interviewed with M-CIDI by lay interviewers. Results: Being married only seems to increase the female depression risk when having children, while higher education reduced female excess; both male and female risk for depression raised sharply in separated, divorced and widowed probands. Not being employed was associated with an increased risk in male depression whereas in females risk was nearly unchanged. The gender ratio increased with the minimum number of depressive symptoms. Female excess was not reduced by a higher degree of subjective impairment or melancholic features. Females also predominated in longer episode durations. Female excess in the total group emerged beginning from adolescence with a tendency for a male excess in the prepubescent ages. No birth cohort effect was observed. Limitations: The cross-sectional design of this study precluded causal analysis of reported associations and some retrospective assessments are errorprone because of recall bias. Conclusions: We support previous findings of variations in gender differences in depression, however observed social parameter influences underline the need for a more detailed analysis of subgroups and underlying psychological mechanisms.

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 012113087

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 14612220

DOI: 10.1016/s0165-0327(02)00121-0



Related references

Mortality in patients with primary unipolar depression, secondary unipolar depression, and bipolar affective disorder: a comparison with general population mortality. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 17(4): 351-360, 1987

A survey of attitudes to depression in the general public: A comparison of age and gender differences. Journal of Mental Health 15(2): 179-189, 2006

Depression and activity limitations: examining gender differences in the general population. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 41(8): 648-655, 2006

Gender and age differences among current smokers in a general population survey. Bmc Public Health 5(): 57-57, 2005

Epidemiology and theories of gender differences in unipolar depression. Seeman, M V Gender and psychopathology 63-87, 1995

Gender differences in DSM-IV alcohol use disorders and major depression as distributed in the general population: Clinical implications. Comprehensive Psychiatry 38(4): 202-212, 1997

Gender differences in unipolar depression: An update of epidemiological findings and possible explanations. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 108(3): 163-174, September, 2003

Gender differences in trait aggression in young adults with drug and alcohol dependence compared to the general population. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 35(5): 1333-1340, 2012

Gender differences in the short-term course of unipolar depression in a follow-up sample of depressed inpatients. Journal of Affective Disorders 56(2-3): 127-139, 2000

Gender differences in the short-term course of unipolar depression in a follow-up sample of depressed inpatients. Journal of Affective Disorders 56(2-3): 127-139, 1999

Gender and age differences in domain-specific life satisfaction and the impact of depressive and anxiety symptoms: a general population survey from Germany. Quality of Life Research 18(6): 669-678, 2009

Age and Gender Differences in the Association between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Stroke in the General US Population: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2006. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 26(11): 2510-2518, 2017

Can unipolar and bipolar pediatric major depression be differentiated from each other? A systematic review of cross-sectional studies examining differences in unipolar and bipolar depression. Journal of Affective Disorders 176(): 1-7, 2015

Unipolar depression in the Belgian population: trends and sex differences in an eight-wave sample. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 40(9): 691-699, 2005

Prevalence of experience of physical and psychological violence in the general population in the past 12 months. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1). Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz 59(1): 4-16, 2015