+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV)-W ENV and GAG proteins: physiological expression in human brain and pathophysiological modulation in multiple sclerosis lesions

Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV)-W ENV and GAG proteins: physiological expression in human brain and pathophysiological modulation in multiple sclerosis lesions

Journal of Neurovirology 11(1): 23-33

Antigen expression of a human endogenous retrovirus family, HERV-W, in normal human brain and multiple sclerosis lesions was studied by immunohistochemistry by three independent groups. The HERV-W multicopy family was identified in human DNA from the previously characterized multiple sclerosis-associated retroviral element (MSRV). A panel of antibodies against envelope (ENV) and capsid (GAG) antigens was tested. A physiological expression of GAG proteins in neuronal cells was observed in normal brain, whereas there was a striking accumulation of GAG antigen in axonal structures in demyelinated white matter from patients with MS. Prominent HERV-W GAG expression was also detected in endothelial cells of MS lesions from acute or actively demyelinating cases, a pattern not found in any control. A physiological expression of ENV proteins was detected in microglia in normal brain; however,a specific expression in macrophages was apparently restricted to early MS lesions. Thus, converging results from three groups confirm that GAG and ENV proteins encoded by the HERV-W multicopy gene family are expressed in cells of the central nervous system under normal conditions. Similar to HERV-W7q ENV (Syncitin), which is expressed in placenta and has been shown to have a physiological function in syncytio-trophoblast fusion, HERV-W GAG may thus also have a physiological function in human brain. This expression differs in MS lesions, which may either reflect differential regulation of inherited HERV-W copies, or expression of "infectious" MSRV copies. This is compatible with a pathophysiological role in MS, but also illustrates the ambivalence of such HERV antigens, which can be expressed in cell-specific patterns, under physiological or pathological conditions.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 012159404

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 15804956

DOI: 10.1080/13550280590901741

Related references

Comprehensive analysis of human endogenous retrovirus group HERV-W locus transcription in multiple sclerosis brain lesions by high-throughput amplicon sequencing. Journal of Virology 87(24): 13837-13852, 2014

Expression of HERV-Fc1, a human endogenous retrovirus, is increased in patients with active multiple sclerosis. Journal of Virology 86(7): 3713-3722, 2012

Unreliable real-time PCR analysis of human endogenous retrovirus-W (HERV-W) RNA expression and DNA copy number in multiple sclerosis. Aids Research and Human Retroviruses 25(3): 377-8; Author Reply 379-81, 2009

Brains and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients hyperexpress MS-associated retrovirus/HERV-W endogenous retrovirus, but not Human herpesvirus 6. Journal of General Virology 88(Pt 1): 264-274, 2006

Expression of the human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K in human tissues Implications for its role in physiological processes and tumorigenesis. Journal of Molecular Medicine 76(6): B4, 1998

A general method for the identification of transcribed retrovirus sequences (R-U5 PCR) reveals the expression of the human endogenous retrovirus loci HERV-H and HERV-K in teratocarcinoma cells. Virology 192(2): 501-511, 1993

The etiology of multiple sclerosis: genetic evidence for the involvement of the human endogenous retrovirus HERV-Fc1. Plos One 6(2): E16652, 2011

Human endogenous retrovirus HERV-Fc1 association with multiple sclerosis susceptibility: a meta-analysis. Plos One 9(3): E90182, 2015

MSRV/HERV-W/syncytin and its linkage to multiple sclerosis: the usability and the hazard of a human endogenous retrovirus. Journal of Neurovirology 11(2): 232-235, 2005

Expression patterns of transcribed human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K(HML-2) loci in human tissues and the need for a HERV Transcriptome Project. Bmc Genomics 9: 354, 2008

Human endogenous retrovirus W in brain lesions: Rationale for targeted therapy in multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders 8: 11-18, 2017

Bone morphogenetic proteins and retinoic acid induce human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K expression in NT2D1 human embryonal carcinoma cells. Development Growth & Differentiation 42(4): 407-411, 2000

The multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus and its HERV-W endogenous family: a biological interface between virology, genetics, and immunology in human physiology and disease. Journal of Neurovirology 15(1): 4-13, 2008

A human endogenous retrovirus-like (HERV) LTR formed more than 10 million years ago due to an insertion of HERV-H LTR into the 5' LTR of HERV-K is situated on human chromosomes 10, 19 and Y. Journal of General Virology 80: 835-839, 1999

Effects of interferon-beta therapy on elements in the antiviral immune response towards the human herpesviruses EBV, HSV, and VZV, and to the human endogenous retroviruses HERV-H and HERV-W in multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neuroimmunology 249(1-2): 105-108, 2012