Mechanisms of action of novel skin penetration enhancers: phospholipid versus skin lipid liposomes
El Maghraby, G.M.M.; Campbell, M.; Finnin, B.C.
International Journal of Pharmaceutics 305(1-2): 90-104
Employing thermal analysis, we investigated the mechanism of action of novel enhancers and probed phospholipid (PL) versus stratum corneum lipid (SCL) liposomes as model membranes. The enhancers included octyl salicylate (OS), padimate O (PADO) and 2-(1-nonyl)-1,3-dioxolane (ND). The negative controls were the empty liposomes. Positive controls employed dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and Azone (AZ). For PL liposomes, DMSO sharpened the transitions. AZ abolished the pre-transition, broadened the main transition and linearly reduced its transition temperature (T(m)). OS or PADO reduced T(m) and size of pre-transition, broadened the main transition and decreased its T(m) (non-linearly). ND abolished the pre-transition but increased T(m) of the main endotherm, suggesting retardation rather than enhancement. The results of SCL correlated with PL liposomes except for ND. In SCL liposomes, ND reduced T(m) and broadened the peaks indicating lipid disruption, which indicated its enhancing effects. In conclusion, OS, PADO and ND can enhance drugs by disrupting intercellular lipid domain but they differ from AZ in terms of the relationship between efficacy and concentration. Although PL liposomes are simple model membranes with sharp transitions which give detailed information about the effects of enhancers, they can provide misleading results. Simultaneous use of other models like SCL liposomes is recommended.