Metabolism of the alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones, chalcone and trans-4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one, by rat liver microsomes and estrogenic activity of the metabolites

Kohno, Y.; Kitamura, S.; Sanoh, S.; Sugihara, K.; Fujimoto, N.; Ohta, S.

Drug Metabolism and Disposition the Biological Fate of Chemicals 33(8): 1115-1123


ISSN/ISBN: 0090-9556
PMID: 15863696
DOI: 10.1124/dmd.104.002634
Accession: 012300277

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When chalcone and trans-4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one (PBO) were incubated with liver microsomes of untreated rats in the presence of NADPH, 4-hydroxychalcone and trans-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one (4-OH-PBO), respectively, were formed as major metabolites. Two minor metabolites of chalcone, 4'-hydroxychalcone and 2-hydroxychalcone, were also observed. The oxidase activity affording 4-hydroxychalcone was inhibited by SKF 525-A, disulfiram, ketoconazole, and alpha-naphthoflavone. The oxidase activities leading to 4-hydroxychalcone and 4'-hydroxychalcone were enhanced in liver microsomes of 3-methylcholanthrene- and phenobarbital-treated rats, respectively. The activity generating 2-hydroxychalcone was enhanced in liver microsomes of 3-methylcholanthrene- and dexamethasone-treated rats. The oxidation of PBO to 4-OH-PBO was inhibited by SKF 525- A, ketoconazole, disulfiram, and sulfaphenazole. This activity was enhanced in liver microsomes of 3-methylcholanthrene-, acetone- and phenobarbital-treated rats. 4-Hydroxylation, 4'-hydroxylation, and 2-hydroxylation of chalcone were catalyzed by rat recombinant cytochrome P450 1A1, 1A2, and 2C6; by 1A1 and 2C6; and by 1A1 and 3A1, respectively. PBO was oxidized by cytochrome P450 1A1, 1A2, 2C6, and 2E1. Chalcone and PBO were negative in an estrogen reporter assay using estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. However, 4-hydroxychalcone, 2-hydroxychalcone, 4'-hydroxychalcone, and 4-OH-PBO exhibited estrogenic activity.