Potential therapeutic antioxidants that combine the radical scavenging ability of myricetin and the lipophilic chain of vitamin e to effectively inhibit microsomal lipid peroxidation
Bennett, C.J.; Caldwell, S.T.; McPhail, D.B.; Morrice, P.C.; Duthie, G.G.; Hartley, R.C.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry 12(9): 2079-2098
ISSN/ISBN: 0968-0896 PMID: 15080911 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2004.02.031
The flavonol myricetin, reacts with oxygen-centred galvinoxyl radicals 28 times faster than d-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), the main lipid-soluble antioxidant in biological membranes. Moreover, each myricetin molecule reduces twice as many such radicals as vitamin E. However, myricetin fails to protect vitamin E-deficient microsomes from lipid peroxidation as assessed by the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Novel and potentially therapeutic antioxidants have been prepared that combine the radical-scavenging ability of a myricetin-like head group with a lipophilic chain similar to that of vitamin E. C(6)-C(12) alkyl chains are attached to the A-ring of either a 3,3',4',5'-tetrahydroxyflavone or a 3,2',4',5'-tetrahydroxyflavone head group to give lipophilic flavonoids (C log P = 4 to 10) that markedly inhibit iron-ADP catalysed oxidation of microsomal preparations. Orientation of the head group as well as total lipophilicity are important determinants of antioxidant efficacy. MM2 models indicate that our best straight chain 7-alkylflavonoids embed to the same depth in the membrane as vitamin E. The flavonoid head groups are prepared by aldol condensation followed by Algar-Flynn-Oyamada (AFO) oxidation or by Baker-Venkataraman rearrangement. The alkyl tails are introduced by Suzuki or Negishi palladium-catalysed cross-coupling or by cross-metathesis catalysed by first generation Grubbs catalyst, which tolerate phenolic hydroxyl and ketone groups.