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Serine residues 338 and 339 in the carboxyl-terminal tail of the type II gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor are critical for beta-arrestin-independent internalization

Serine residues 338 and 339 in the carboxyl-terminal tail of the type II gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor are critical for beta-arrestin-independent internalization

Endocrinology 145(10): 4480-4488

Cloned mammalian type II GnRH receptors have a carboxyl-terminal tail in contrast to the mammalian type I GnRH receptors, which uniquely lack a carboxyl-terminal tail. Because this domain mediates internalization of many serpentine receptors, the internalization pathway of the marmoset monkey type II GnRH receptor and the functional role of the carboxyl-terminal tail in internalization was studied. The internalization pathway of the type II GnRH receptor was investigated in COS-1 cells by coexpressing G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), dynamin-1, and beta-arrestins. Internalization of the receptor requires GRKs and dynamin but does not require beta-arrestin. The type II GnRH receptor can also internalize via beta-arrestin in the presence of exogenous beta-arrestins, suggesting that the receptor can use two distinct internalization pathways. Receptor internalization appears to occur via clathrin-coated pits and caveolae because disruption of either structure inhibits internalization. Progressive truncations of the carboxyl-terminal tail identified a region containing serine residues 338 and 339 as critical for receptor internalization. Substitution of these serine residues with alanine residues inhibited internalization, whereas substitutions with glutamic acid residues rescued internalization. Furthermore, a dominant-negative GRK2 did not inhibit internalization of receptors having these serine substitutions, although it inhibited internalization of the wild-type receptor. These results together identify serine residues 338 and 339 in the carboxyl-terminal tail as critical for internalization of the type II GnRH receptor and suggest that these residues undergo phosphorylation by GRKs. However, neither of these residues, nor the carboxyl-terminal tail, is required for beta-arrestin-dependent internalization.

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Accession: 012548019

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PMID: 15205374

DOI: 10.1210/en.2004-0075

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