Synergy of daptomycin with oxacillin and other beta-lactams against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Rand, K.H.; Houck, H.J.
Antimicrobial Agents and ChemoTherapy 48(8): 2871-2875
ISSN/ISBN: 0066-4804 PMID: 15273094 DOI: 10.1128/aac.48.8.2871-2875.2004
We previously observed marked synergy between daptomycin and both rifampin and ampicillin against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Because the synergy between daptomycin and ampicillin was observed for 100% of VRE strains with high-level ampicillin resistance (ampicillin MIC of > or =128 microg/ml), we looked for synergy between daptomycin and other beta-lactams against 18 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by employing a time-kill method using Mueller-Hinton broth supplemented to 50 mg of Ca2+/liter. All strains were resistant to oxacillin (16 of 18 strains were resistant at drug concentrations of > or =256 microg/ml), and all strains were susceptible to daptomycin (the MIC at which 90% of the tested isolates were inhibited was 1 microg/ml). Daptomycin was tested at concentrations of 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, and 0.0625 microg/ml alone or in combination with oxacillin at a fixed concentration of 32 microg/ml. Synergy was found for all 18 strains with daptomycin at one-half the MIC in combination with 32 microg of oxacillin/ml, and synergy was found for 11 of 18 strains (61%) with daptomycin at one-fourth the MIC or less in combination with oxacillin. At 24 h, the daptomycin-oxacillin combination with daptomycin at one-half the MIC showed bactericidal activity against all 18 strains, and the combination with one-fourth the daptomycin MIC showed bactericidal activity against 9 of 18 strains. We also used a novel screening method to look for synergy between daptomycin and other beta-lactams. In this approach, daptomycin was incorporated into Ca(2+)-supplemented Mueller-Hinton agar at subinhibitory concentrations, and synergy was screened by comparing test antibiotic Kirby-Bauer disks on agar with and without daptomycin. By this method, daptomycin with ampicillin-sulbactam, ticarcillin-clavulanate, or piperacillin-tazobactam showed synergy comparable to or greater than daptomycin with oxacillin. For seven of the eight strains tested, time-kill studies confirmed synergy between daptomycin and ampicillin-sulbactam with ampicillin in the range of 2 to 8 microg/ml. The combination of daptomycin and beta-lactams may be useful for the treatment of MRSA infection, but further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms and to determine the in vivo efficacy of the combination.