The survival of semi-wild, wild and hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolts of the Simojoki River in the Baltic Sea
Jokikokko, E.; Kallio Nyberg, I.; Saloniemi, I.; Jutila, E.
Journal of Fish Biology 68(2): 430-442
The recapture rate and survival of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar stocked as 1 year-old parr (semi-wild) with that of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon stocked as 2 year-old smolts and wild smolts of Atlantic salmon in the northern Baltic Sea were compared. This was done through tagging experiments carried out in 1986-1988 and 1992. The recapture rate of the semi-wild groups varied from 1.0 to 13.1%, being similar in 3 tagging years and lower in 1 year than that of the wild groups (1.7-17.0%). The recapture rate of the semi-wild groups was similar (in 2 years) or higher (in 2 years) than that of the hatchery-reared groups stocked as smolts (1.3-6.3%). The survival of semi-wild smolts during the sea migration was as high as that of wild Atlantic salmon of an equal size and two to three times higher than hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon stocked as smolts. The survival rate was positively associated with smolt size. The suitability of hatchery-reared parr and smolts in the management of reduced Atlantic salmon stocks is compared.