+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Vesicular glutamate transporter 3 immunoreactivity is present in cholinergic basal forebrain neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdala in rat



Vesicular glutamate transporter 3 immunoreactivity is present in cholinergic basal forebrain neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdala in rat



Journal of Comparative Neurology 498(5): 690-711



The basal forebrain (BF) plays a role in behavioral and cortical arousal, attention, learning, and memory. It has been suggested that cholinergic BF neurons co-release glutamate, and some cholinergic BF neurons have been reported to contain vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3). We examined the distribution and projections of BF cholinergic neurons containing VGLUT3, by using dual-label immunofluorescence for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and VGLUT3, in situ hybridization, and retrograde tracing. Neurons immunoreactive (+) or containing mRNAs for both ChAT and VGLUT3 were mainly localized to the ventral pallidum and more caudal BF regions; the co-immunoreactive neurons represented 31% of cholinergic neurons in the ventral pallidum and 5-9% more caudally. Examination of cholinergic axon terminals in known target areas of BF projections indicated that the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus contained numerous terminals co-immunoreactive for ChAT and VGLUT3, whereas sampled areas of the olfactory bulb, neocortex, hippocampus, reticular thalamic nucleus, and interpeduncular nucleus were devoid of double-labeled terminals. The basolateral amygdala is innervated by cholinergic BF neurons lacking low-affinity p75 nerve growth factor receptors; many ChAT+VGLUT3+ BF neurons were immunonegative to this receptor. Twenty-five to 79% of ChAT+VGLUT3+ neurons in different BF regions were retrogradely labeled from the basolateral amygdala, up to 52% (ventral pallidum) of the retrogradely labeled ChAT+ neurons were VGLUT3+, and the largest number of amygdala-projecting ChAT+VGluT3+ neurons was found in the ventral pallidum. These findings indicate that BF cholinergic neurons containing VGLUT3 project to the basolateral amygdala and suggest that these neurons might have the capacity to release both acetylcholine and glutamate.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 012740899

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 16917846

DOI: 10.1002/cne.21081


Related references

Vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 synapses on cholinergic neurons in the sublenticular gray of the rat basal forebrain: a double-label electron microscopic study. Neuroscience 164(4): 1721-1731, 2010

VESICULAR TRANSPORTER PROTEINS FOR GLUTAMATE , As WELL As FOR ACETYLCHOLINE OR GABA , IN TERMINAL VARICOSITIES OF CORTICALLY PROJECTING BASAL FOREBRAIN NEURONS. Society for Neuroscience Abstract Viewer & Itinerary Planner : Abstract No 870 14, 2002

Complementary distribution of type 1 cannabinoid receptors and vesicular glutamate transporter 3 in basal forebrain suggests input-specific retrograde signalling by cholinergic neurons. European Journal of Neuroscience 18(7): 1979-1992, 2003

Impact of basal forebrain cholinergic inputs on basolateral amygdala neurons. Journal of Neuroscience 35(2): 853-863, 2015

Galanin-like immunoreactivity in cholinergic neurons of the septum-basal forebrain complex projecting to the hippocampus of the rat. Brain Research 360(1-2): 130-138, 1985

Calretinin immunoreactivity is present in the primate basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 27(2): 1567, 2001

Brainstem projecting neurons in the rat basal forebrain neurochemical topographical and physiological distinctions from cortically projecting cholinergic neurons. Brain Research Bulletin 22(3): 501-510, 1989

Glutamate vesicular transporter bNPI and putative excitatory amino acid vesicular transporter dNPI show differential distribution in neurons projecting to cerebellar cortex in rat. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 27(1): 1506, 2001

Innervation of orexin/hypocretin neurons by GABAergic, glutamatergic or cholinergic basal forebrain terminals evidenced by immunostaining for presynaptic vesicular transporter and postsynaptic scaffolding proteins. Journal of Comparative Neurology 499(4): 645-661, 2006

Immunohistochemical analysis of localizations of vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 and vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the rat cortex and basal forebrain. Society for Neuroscience Abstract Viewer & Itinerary Planner : Abstract No 35 5, 2002

Parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons and GABAergic neurons of the basal forebrain project to the rat basolateral amygdala. Neuroscience 160(4): 805-812, 2009

Cholinergic neurons excite cortically projecting basal forebrain GABAergic neurons. Journal of Neuroscience 34(8): 2832-2844, 2014

Intense immunoreactivity for Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) in cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons in the rat basal forebrain. Brain Research 541(2): 354-357, 1991

Non cholinergic cortex projecting neurons in the rat basal forebrain a light and electron microscopic study. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 15(1): 903, 1989

Parvalbumin, calbindin, or calretinin in cortically projecting and GABAergic, cholinergic, or glutamatergic basal forebrain neurons of the rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology 458(1): 11-31, 2003