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Xenoestrogen-induced ERK-1 and ERK-2 activation via multiple membrane-initiated signaling pathways

Xenoestrogen-induced ERK-1 and ERK-2 activation via multiple membrane-initiated signaling pathways

Environmental Health Perspectives 112(15): 1481-1487

Xenoestrogens can mimic or antagonize the activity of physiological estrogens, and the suggested mechanism of xenoestrogen action involves binding to estrogen receptors (ERs). However, the failure of various in vitro or in vivo assays to show strong genomic activity of xenoestrogens compared with estradiol (E2) makes it difficult to explain their ability to cause abnormalities in animal (and perhaps human) reproductive functions via this pathway of steroid action.

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Accession: 012753134

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PMID: 15531431

DOI: 10.2307/3435604

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