Effects of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-infected antigen-presenting cells on T cell activation and antiviral cytokine production
Charerntantanakul, W.; Platt, R.; Roth, J.A.
Viral Immunology 19(4): 646-661
ISSN/ISBN: 0882-8245 PMID: 17201660 DOI: 10.1089/vim.2006.19.646
The ability of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to suppress T cell expression of CD25 (alpha chain of interleukin [IL]-2 receptor), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was determined by flow cytometry in naive porcine T cells in response to mitogen (concanavalin A) and cytokine inducers (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus ionomycin [PMA/I]). Four PRRSV isolates of varying clinical virulence and three different types of porcine myeloid antigen-presenting cells (APCs) were used. T cells cultured with monocytes infected with virulent PRRSV (VR-2385, SDSU-73, and VR-2332), but not with a vaccine strain (Ingelvac PRRS MLV; Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, St. Joseph, MO), demonstrated significantly reduced CD25 expression (%CD25(+)) and IFN-gamma expression (%IFN-gamma (+)) compared with T cells incubated with uninoculated monocyte cultures. T cells cultured with monocytes infected with all four PRRSV isolates demonstrated significantly reduced %TNF-alpha (+). The significant reduction of %CD25(+), %IFN-gamma (+), and %TNF-alpha (+) was not detected in T cells cultured with monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDCs) infected with any PRRSV isolates. Heat-inactivated PRRSV did not induce significantly reduced T cell responses in any APC cultures. The reduction of T cell response in monocyte cultures was not due to PRRSV-induced T cell death. Gene expression of IL-10 detected by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was significantly increased in virulent PRRSV-infected monocyte cultures after PMA/I, but not concanavalin A, stimulation compared with IL-10 gene expression from uninoculated monocyte cultures. Increased IL-10 gene expression contributed to significantly reduced %IFN-gamma (+) and %TNF-alpha (+), but not %CD25(+), as determined by IL-10 neutralization assay. This study reports that PRRSV has the ability to suppress T cell responses. The suppressive ability of PRRSV is associated with viral virulence and is mediated by virus-infected monocytes, but not by virus-infected MDMs and immature MDCs.