Evaluating the influence of canopy species and meteorological factors on throughfall drop size distribution
Nanko, K.H.tta, N.S.zuki, M.
Journal of hydrology 15 329(3-4): 422-431
ISSN/ISBN: 0022-1694 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.02.036
Drop size distributions (DSDs) were continuously and simultaneously measured by laser raindrop-sizing instruments (LD gauges) in an open site and in three forest stands consisting of Japanese cypress (CY: Chamaecyparis obtusa), Japanese cedar (CD: Cryptomeria japonica), and sawtooth oak (SO: Quercus acutissima), during three rainfall events in Tokyo, Japan. Drop data during the whole observation period were used in an hourly based data set and divided into three meteorological condition groups: calm, heavy rain, and strong wind. Evaluating the influence of canopy species and meteorological factors on the D and DSD difference revealed some throughfall DSD characteristics. First, throughfall had different DSDs among canopy species under conditions of little canopy vibration with low rainfall intensity and wind speed; D values were 2.00, 2.93, and 3.60 mm in CY, CD, and SO, respectively. Second, throughfall contained smaller drops under conditions of severe canopy vibration, with high rainfall intensity and/or high wind speed, than under calm meteorological conditions. Vibration of the canopy could reduce water coalescence and increase spattered rainwater from canopies. Third, the influence of meteorological factors was different between canopy species; SO was readily influenced but CY was not. Moreover, results from this study implied that throughfall consisted of three drop components - free throughfall, drips, and splash droplets - and suggested a process for generating throughfall DSD that could explain the variations in throughfall DSDs between canopy species and that influenced by meteorological factors.