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Effective pollination period in durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) and the factors regulating it

Effective pollination period in durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) and the factors regulating it

Scientia Horticulturae 111(2): 193-196

ISSN/ISBN: 0304-4238

DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2006.10.016

The effective pollination period (EPP) of durian was determined by both delayed and bud pollination, during which reproductive factors affecting the EPP, e.g., stigma receptivity, pollen tube growth in the style, and ovule longevity were studied histologically. This study was conducted in three distinct locations in Thailand, namely, the Chantaburi Horticultural Research Center and two private orchards in Chantaburi and Trat provinces. Results from artificial pollination revealed that at anthesis, the durian flower is receptive and has a high fruit set ratio. A mean fruit set of 50% was obtained at anthesis in the private orchard in Chantaburi province. However, the EPP of durian was found to be very short, lasting for only one night; the fruit set from pollination on the morning after anthesis ranged from 0% to 3.4%. No fruit set occurred following pollination 24 or more hours after anthesis. When compared with the flowers of other fruit species, the durian flower has a unique feature in that it blooms overnight; the following morning, there is abscission of all parts of the flower, except the gynoecium. Thus, EPP appears to be synchronized with flower longevity. On the other hand, the durian flower was receptive several hours before anthesis. The results of chemical tests, including the hydrogen peroxide test and Perex-Test (R), for the evaluation of stigma receptivity appeared to be in agreement with the EPP. However, fluorescent microscopy revealed that pollen could germinate even in the stigmas pollinated 48 h after anthesis, but the number of pollen tubes at the top of the style rapidly decreased from 34.6 (at anthesis) to 0.5 (48 h after anthesis). A correlation test demonstrated a higher correlation coefficient between the fruit set and the number of pollen than that between the fruit set and the result of Perex-Test (R). This indicated that pollen tube penetration or elongation in the style was inhibited, probably due to the deterioration of nutritional support from the pistil to the pollen tubes this can be a limiting factor of the EPP in durian.

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Accession: 012911360

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