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Various mechanisms responsible for permethrin metabolic resistance in seven field-collected strains of the German cockroach from Iran, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)



Various mechanisms responsible for permethrin metabolic resistance in seven field-collected strains of the German cockroach from Iran, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)



Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 87(2): 138-146



Insecticide resistance in the German cockroach can be mediated by a number of mechanisms, the most common being enhanced enzymatic metabolism. Seven field-collected strains of German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) with various levels of resistance to pyrethroids, five out of which were also cross-resistant to DDT were used in this study. The investigation of possible mechanisms responsible for permethrin resistance was carried out using the synergists PBO, DEF and DMC and biochemical assays, including general esterases, glutathione S-transeferases and monooxygenases assays, using an automated microtitre plate reader. PBO and DEF, the inhibitors of cytochrome p450 monooxygenases and general esterases, respectively, affected permethrin resistance to varying degrees depending on the strain. DDT resistance in five strains were not completely eliminated by the synergist DMC, an inhibitor of glutathione S-transferase enzymes, Suggesting that a further non-metabolic resistance mechanism such as kdr-type may be present. This suggestion was further supported by GST assay data, where a little elevation in GST activity was detected in only two strains. The synergist data supported by biochemical assays implicated that cytochrome p450 monooxygenases or hydrolases are involved in permethrin resistance in some strains. However, these results implicated both enhanced oxidative and hydrolytic metabolism of permethrin as resistance mechanism in the other strains. The results of synergist and biochemical studies implicated that all the field-collected permethrin resistant strains have developed diverse mechanisms of resistance, although these strains have been collected from the same geographic area. The change in resistance ratios of some strains by using PBO or DEF is discussed. It is of interest to note that because resistance to permethrin was not completely eliminated by DEF and PBO, it is likely that one or more additional mechanisms are involved in permethrin resistance in every strain studied.

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Accession: 012935557

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DOI: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2006.07.003



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