Section 14
Chapter 13,029

Toxicity of fenamiphos and its metabolites to the cladoceran Daphnia carinata: the influence of microbial degradation in natural waters

Cáceres, T.; Megharaj, M.; Naidu, R.

Chemosphere 66(7): 1264-1269


ISSN/ISBN: 0045-6535
PMID: 16930667
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.07.027
Accession: 013028002

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The acute toxicity of an organophosphorous pesticide, fenamiphos and its metabolites, fenamiphos sulfoxide, fenamiphos sulfone, fenamiphos phenol, fenamiphos sulfoxide phenol and fenamiphos sulfone phenol, to a cladoceran, Daphnia carinata was studied in both cladoceran culture medium and natural water collected from a local river. The toxicity followed the order: fenamiphos>fenamiphos sulfone>fenamiphos sulfoxide. The hydrolysis products of fenamiphos, F. sulfoxide (FSO) and F. sulfone (FSO(2)) (F. phenol, FSO phenol and FSO(2) phenol) were not toxic to D. carinata up to 500microgl(-1) water, suggesting hydrolysis reaction leads to detoxification. Also the toxicity was reduced in natural water compared to the cladoceran culture medium due to microbial mediated degradation of toxicants in the natural water. Fenamiphos and its metabolites were stable in both cladoceran water and filter-sterilised natural water while these compounds showed degradation in unfiltered natural water implicating the microbial role in degradation of these compounds. To our knowledge this is the first study on acute toxicity of fenamiphos metabolites to cladoceran and this study suggests that the organophosphate pesticides are highly toxic to fresh water invertebrates and therefore pollution with these compounds may adversely affect the natural ecosystems.

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