Effects of nitrogen fertilizer rate and ratio of base and topdressing on winter wheat yield and fate of fertilizer nitrogen

Shi Yu; Yu ZhenWen; Li YanQi; Wang Xue

Scientia Agricultura Sinica 40(1): 54-62


ISSN/ISBN: 0578-1752
Accession: 013054440

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Field studies were conducted in China to determine the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer rate and ratio of basal and topdressing fertilizer applications on wheat grain yield, fertilizer use efficiency, N fertilizer loss and residual N in 0-200 cm soil layers under high yield conditions. The appropriate N fertilizer rate and ratio of basal and topdressing were chosen for obtaining profitable yield, high N fertilizer use efficiency (NFUE) and reduction of possible environmental pollution. The treatments comprised: no N fertilizer (NO); N application rate of 168 and 240 kg N/ha, 1:1 (N1 and N4), 1:2 (N2 and N5) and 0:1 (N3 and N6) ratios of basal to topdressing N. The results showed that under a high yield condition, applying N fertilizer significantly increased grain yield and protein content and the N2, N5 and N6 treatments gained higher grain yield and grain protein content. The N2 treatment enhanced NFUE significantly and decreased N fertilizer loss rate. Results also showed that the increase of either basal or topdressing r-N rate increased fertilizer N residual amount in the 0-200 cm soil layers. It made fertilizer N move to a deeper layer. At maturity, basal fertilizer N residues proportion in 0-40, 40-100, and 100-200 cm to total basal residues were 38.3-48.7%, 39.7-51.3% and 0-22%, respectively. Topdressing N fertilizers in the N4 and N5 treatments was moved to 140-160 cm, while in the N3 and N6 treatments, it moved to 160-180 and 180-200 cm, respectively. Basal and topdressing N fertilizer residues of the N2 treatment was not found in the 100-200 cm soil layers during the whole growth stage. As far as grain yield, NFUE, fertilizer N residue in 0-200 cm soil layers and fertilizer N loss were concerned, the most appropriate N fertilizer application for recommendation was the N2 treatment with 168 kg N/ha and a basal to topdressing N ratio of 1:2.