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Studies on the external costs of and the optimum use of nitrogen fertilizer based on the balance of economic and ecological benefits in the paddy field system of the Dongting Lake area



Studies on the external costs of and the optimum use of nitrogen fertilizer based on the balance of economic and ecological benefits in the paddy field system of the Dongting Lake area



Scientia Agricultura Sinica 39(12): 2531-2537



The environmental impact was economically evaluated. The optimum use of N fertilizer was calculated based on the exterior diseconomy theory and by using the production function model. Both ecological and farmer's economic benefits were considered. The actual amount of N fertilizer applied in the rice field system of the Dongting Lake area, China, already reached or exceeded the farmers' economic satisfaction and the allowed N fertilizer rate for current production.

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