Effects of formulation and cooking method on properties of low-fat beef patties
Journal of food service systems 9(4): 211-228
Seven low-fat (8-10%) formulations of beef patties differing in: (1) raw beef materials, (2) patty formation and freezing method, and (3) added ingredients (iota carrageenan, oat bran and fiber, soy protein concentrate, frozen prehydrated soy protein) were obtained from commercial operations. An eighth product was a 20% fat, all-beef formulation. Patties were cooked to 71C either by impingement oven (IMP) cookery at 260-270C or combination broiler-grilling (BG) at the same temperature range. Among the procedures/ingredients employed, using either beef from young cattle versus old cows, perforating patties coupled with individual quick freezing or substituting some beef with oat bran and fiber produced the greatest improvements in tenderness, juiciness and cooking yields. The 20% fat patties (manufactured from cow beef) received the lowest sensory and instrumental values for tenderness. These findings serve to indicate that high fat levels do not always guarantee high tenderness in beef patties. Patties processed with soy products received the lowest juiciness and flavor ratings. BG produced higher cooking yields and juiciness scores than cooking by IMP. Cooking method did not appreciably influence tenderness. Due to the sizeable differences among formulations in sensory properties and cooking yields, considerable attention appears necessary in selecting raw materials, ingredients and processing procedures in order to insure acceptable low-fat beef patties.