+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

In vitro alternatives and phototoxicity testing. II. Effects of reactive oxygen species in vitro phototoxicity assays

In vitro alternatives and phototoxicity testing. II. Effects of reactive oxygen species in vitro phototoxicity assays

Alternatives to laboratory animals: ATLA 27(4): 665-684

The effects of reactive oxygen species (including singlet oxygen) in two in vitro phototoxicity assays--the 3T3 cell neutral red uptake phototoxicity (3T3 NRU PT) assay and the photohaemolysis assay--were assessed by using scavengers. Fifteen test substances, which had previously been shown to be phototoxic in vitro, were assessed. Eleven of these produced singlet oxygen. The major factor in the photodynamic reaction of bithionol was thought to be a Type I reaction, because bithionol did not produce singlet oxygen and did not react to histidine. Acridine was regarded as a Type II substance, because of the evident effect of histidine as a scavenger. 8-Methoxypsoralen and 5-methoxypsoralen produced singlet oxygen, but their actions were not affected by the scavengers. In this study, we confirmed that reactive oxygen species have great effects in in vitro phototoxicity, and that the 3T3 NRU PT assay can be used to detect effects which are thought to be the direct reaction of an excited photosensitiser to biological substrates (Type III reaction), for example, 8-methoxypsoralen. Therefore, we suggest that photohaemolysis and phototoxicity could be used to evaluate the photodynamic mechanisms of photosensitising chemicals.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 013141684

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 25487861

Related references

In vitro alternatives and phototoxicity testing. I. Evaluation of in vitro phototoxicity assays. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 27(4): 639-664, 1999

The phototoxicity of vemurafenib: An investigation of clinical monochromator phototesting and in vitro phototoxicity testing. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B Biology 151: 233-238, 2015

EEC/COLIPA project on in vitro phototoxicity testing: First results obtained with a BALB/C 3T3 cell phototoxicity assay. Toxicology In Vitro 8(4): 793-796, 1994

Differences between immediate and delayed phototoxicity The concept of the battery of two in vitro phototoxicity tests. In Vitro Toxicology 7(2): 200, 1994

Comparison of an in vitro cellular phototoxicity model against controlled clinical trials of fluoroquinolone skin phototoxicity. Toxicology In Vitro 14(3): 275-283, 2000

The International EU/COLIPA in vitro Phototoxicity Validation Study: Results of phase II (Blind Trial): Part 1: The 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test. Toxicology In Vitro 12(3): 305-327, 1998

In vitro assays for phototoxicity. International Journal of Toxicology 17(5): 567-570, 1998

Acetylated hyaluronic acid/photosensitizer conjugate for the preparation of nanogels with controllable phototoxicity: synthesis, characterization, autophotoquenching properties, and in vitro phototoxicity against HeLa cells. Bioconjugate Chemistry 21(7): 1312-1320, 2010

In vitro phototoxicity of new quinolones: Production of active oxygen species and photosensitized lipid peroxidation. Photodermatology Photoimmunology & Photomedicine 15(6): 226-230, 1999

Evaluation of ketoprofen (R, S and R/S) phototoxicity by a battery of in vitro assays. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B Biology 31(3): 133-138, 1995

Phototoxicity testing--in vivo and in vitro. Food and Chemical Toxicology 25(5): 407-414, 1987

Regulatory perspective on in vitro assays as predictors of phototoxicity and photo co-carcinogenicity. International Journal of Toxicology 17(5): 571-575, 1998

The 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test: practical experience and implications for phototoxicity testing--the report of an ECVAM-EFPIA workshop. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 63(3): 480-488, 2012

A tiered strategy for in vitro phototoxicity testing. Toxicology Letters (Shannon) 144(Suppl 1): s44, 2003

Drug phototoxicity and the role of type II photoreactions involving reactive oxygen species. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 100(4): 599, 1993