Aromatic interactions are not required for amyloid fibril formation by islet amyloid polypeptide but do influence the rate of fibril formation and fibril morphology
Marek, P.; Abedini, A.; Song, B.; Kanungo, M.; Johnson, M.E.; Gupta, R.; Zaman, W.; Wong, S.S.; Raleigh, D.P.
Biochemistry 46(11): 3255-3261
ISSN/ISBN: 0006-2960 PMID: 17311418 DOI: 10.1021/bi0621967
Amyloid formation has been implicated in a wide range of human diseases, and a diverse set of proteins is involved. There is considerable interest in elucidating the interactions which lead to amyloid formation and which contribute to amyloid fibril stability. Recent attention has been focused upon the potential role of aromatic-aromatic and aromatic-hydrophobic interactions in amyloid formation by short to midsized polypeptides. Here we examine whether aromatic residues are necessary for amyloid formation by islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). IAPP is responsible for the formation of islet amyloid in type II diabetes which is thought to play a role in the pathology of the disease. IAPP is 37 residues in length and contains three aromatic residues, Phe-15, Phe-23, and Tyr-37. Structural models of IAPP amyloid fibrils postulate that Tyr-37 is near one of the phenylalanine residues, and it is known that Tyr-37 interacts with one of the phenylalanines during fibrillization; however, it is not known if aromatic-aromatic or aromatic-hydrophobic interactions are absolutely required for amyloid formation. An F15L/F23L/Y37L triple mutant (IAPP-3XL) was prepared, and its ability to form amyloid was tested. CD, thioflavin binding assays, AFM, and TEM measurements all show that the triple leucine mutant readily forms amyloid fibrils. The substitutions do, however, decrease the rate of fibril formation and alter the tendency of fibrils to aggregate. Thus, while aromatic residues are not an absolute requirement for amyloid formation by IAPP, they do play a role in the fibril assembly process.