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Histamine release from the basophils of control and asthmatic subjects and a comparison of gene expression between releaser. and nonreleaser basophils



Histamine release from the basophils of control and asthmatic subjects and a comparison of gene expression between releaser. and nonreleaser basophils



Journal of Immunology 178(7): 4584-4594



Most human blood basophils respond to Fc epsilon RI cross-linking by releasing histamine and other inflammatory mediators. Basophils that do not degranulate after anti-IgE challenge, known as "nonreleaser" basophils, characteristically have no or barely detectable levels of the Syk tyrosine kinase. The true incidence of the nonreleaser phenotype, its relationship (if any) to allergic asthma, and its molecular mechanism are not well understood. In this study, we report statistical analyses of degranulation assays performed in 68 control and 61 asthmatic subjects that establish higher basal and anti-IgE-stimulated basophil degranulation among the asthmatics. Remarkably, 28% of the, control group and 13% of the asthmatic group were nonreleasers; for all or part of our 4-year long study and cycling between the releaser and nonreleaser phenotypes occurred at least once in blood basophils from 8 (of 8) asthmatic and 16 (of 23) control donors. Microarray analysis showed that basal gene expression was generally lower in nonreleaser than releaser basophils. In releaser I cells, Fc epsilon RI cross-linking up-regulated > 200 genes, including genes encoding receptors (the Fc epsilon RI a and beta subunits, the histamine 4 receptor, the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1), signaling proteins (Lyn), chemokines (IL-8, RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and, MIP-4 beta) and transcription factors (early growth response-1, early growth response-3, and AP-1). Fc epsilon RI cross-linking induced fewer, and quite distinct, transcriptional responses in nonreleaser cells. We conclude that "nonreleaser" and "cycler" basophils represent a distinct and reversible natural phenotype. Although histamine is more readily released from basophils isolated from asthmatics than controls, the presence of noureleaser basophils does not rule out the diagnosis of asthma.

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Accession: 013248344

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PMID: 17372017

DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.178.7.4584


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