Long-term integrated nutrient management for rice-based cropping pattern: Effect on growth, yield, nutrient uptake, nutrient balance sheet, and soil fertility

Saha, P.K.; Ishaque, M.; Saleque, M.A.; Miah, M.A.M.; Panaullah, G.M.; Bhuiyan, N.I.

Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 38(5-6): 579-610


ISSN/ISBN: 0010-3624
DOI: 10.1080/00103620701215718
Accession: 013254039

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A 7-year-long field trial was conducted on integrated nutrient management for a dry season rice (Boro)-green manure (GM)-wet season rice (T. Aman) cropping system at the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute Farm, Gazipur during 1993-1999. Five packages of inorganic fertilizers, cow dung (CD), and GM dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata) were evaluated for immediate and residual effect on crop productivity, nutrient uptake, soil-nutrient balance sheet, and soil-fertility status. Plant height, active tiller production, and grain and straw yields were significantly increased as a result of the application of inorganic fertilizer and organic manure. Usually, the soil-test-based (STB) fertilizer doses for a high-yield goal produced the highest grain yield of 6.39 t ha(-1) (average of 7 years) in Boro rice. Application of CD at the rate of 5 t ha(-1) (oven-dry basis) once a year at the time of Boro transplanting supplemented 50% of the fertilizer nutrients other than nitrogen (N) in the subsequent crop of the cropping pattern. A positive effect of GM on the yield of T. Aman rice was observed. Following GM, the application of reduced doses of phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn) to the second crop (T. Aman) did not reduce yield, indicating the beneficial residual effect of fertilizer applied to the first crop (Boro rice) of the cropping pattern. The comparable yield of T. Aman was also observed with reduced fertilizer dose in CD-treated plots. The total P, K, and S uptake (kg/ha/yr) in the unfertilized plot under an irrigated rice system gradually decreased over the years. The partial nutrient balance in the unfertilized plot (T-1) was negative for all the nutrients. In the fertilized plots, there was an apparent positive balance of P, S, and Zn but a negative balance of N and K. This study showed that the addition of organic manure (CD, dhaincha) gave more positive balances. In the T-4c treatment at 0-15 cm, the application of chemical fertilizers along with the organic manures increased soil organic carbon by (C) 0.71%. The highest concentration of total N was observed with T-4c followed by T-4d and T-4b, where CD was applied in Boro season and dhaincha GM was incorporated in T. Aman season. The sixfold increase in soil-available P in T-4b-, T-4c-, T-4a-treated Plots was due to the addition of CD. Dhaincha GM with the combination of chemical fertilizer helps to mobilize soil-available P by 3 to 6 ppm. The highest amount of soil-available S was found in T-4c- and T-4a-treated plots. It was 2.5 times higher than that of the initial soil. The application of CD and dhaincha GM along with chemical fertilizers not only increased organic C, total N, available P, and available S but also increased exchangeable K, available Zn, available iron (Fe), and available manganese (Mn) in soil.