Experiments in mineral nutrition. 1. The visual symptoms of mineral deficiencies in vegetables and cereals grown in sand cultures. Progress report No. 1, 1943

Hewitt, E.J.

A.R. Long Ashton agric. hort. Res. Stat. for 1944. 33-47


Accession: 013374325

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Dr. Wallace's work was continued in 1943 with sand cultures of 23 crops, the chief aims being (a) the extension and confirmation of present records of typical deficiency symptoms, (b) the determination of the effects of added sodium sulfate and sodium chloride with special reference to the use of salts as fertilizers, (c) a study of the problems involved in maintaining large-scale deficiency trials of a number of crops, (d) the development of an economical trace element deficiency technique using rain and distilled water. Results are summarized thus: -"With the rainwater technique, using chemicals of re-crystallized or A.R. standard and unwashed sand, deficiencies of the following were observed: Nitrogen, potash, phosphorus, magnesium, in cauliflower, lettuce, radish, sugar beet, broad bean, red clover, flax, tomato, potato; nitrogen, potash, phosphorus, in barley; phosphorus in rape, cabbage, swede, turnip; calcium in flax, tomato, potato; magnesium in maize, cabbage, turnip, dwarf bean; boron in cauliflower, marrow-stem kale, celery. No significant effects were observed with additional sodium sulfate and chloride; and only slight paling was noted in sulphur deficiency; iron and manganese deficient cultures produced no leaf symptoms. With the distilled water technique, using A.R. grade or highly purified chemicals and unwashed sand, deficiencies of the following were observed: -Iron in sugar beet, flax; boron in cauliflower, tomato; manganese in tomato. Toxicity symptoms in tomatoes were observed with excess boron. The use of unwashed sand is suitable for major element deficiency cultures and boron and manganese deficiencies, in some crops, but not for iron deficiency. The method of pretreatment with complete nutrient before sowing is suitable for deficiencies of nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, and magnesium in most plants. It is unsuitable for calcium deficiency, and for potassium and ^magnesium deficiencies in cereals.