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Preservation experiment with Apples and Pears of the 1938 and 1939 harvests. Experiments in preservation under various storage conditions II



Preservation experiment with Apples and Pears of the 1938 and 1939 harvests. Experiments in preservation under various storage conditions II



Tidsskr. PIanteavl. 45: 4, 565-622



Further experimental data are summarized and tabulated in connexion with the health of apples (pears also being included in the present series of trials) under various storage conditions in 1938-9 and 1939-40 in Denmark, viz., an ordinary ventilated storeroom and a cold store at temperatures of 3-5 degrees, 2-5 degrees, 1-5 degrees, and (in the latter year) 0-5 degrees C., while the effects of pre-cooling (by keeping the fruits at 2.5 degrees for 10 or 20 days before placing in the ventilated storeroom) and of delayed cooling (10 or 20 days in the ventilated storeroom before transference to the cold store) were also determined. Ten days' pre-cooling and cold storage improved the keeping properties of Belle-fleur de France apples of the 1938 harvest until January or February, but by March or April the position had deteriorated in respect of scald and low-temperature breakdown, which were more severe in cold than in ordinary storage, while brown heart occurred only under the former conditions. In 1939 scald and brown heart were again more troublesome at the lower temperatures in the cold store during the latter part of the storage period. In contrast to 1938, delayed cooling improved the keeping properties of Bellefleur. Both in 1938 and 1939 Bismarck kept best at low temperatures. In the former year, brown heart affected all the fruits in each series, while in the latter it was reduced under the influence of the lowest temperatures of 1.5 degrees and (more especially) 0.5 degrees. The maximum incidence of fungal infection (21 per cent.) occurred in 1938 in the ordinary storeroom without pre-cooling, Botrytis, Penicillium, and Gloeosporium album being the organisms mainly concerned. Blenheim was likewise benefited by cooling and pre-cooling in both years, except in respect of brown heart, which was aggravated at low temperatures. Scald occurred in the ordinary storeroom in both seasons, Jonathan spot in 1938-9 only. In both years scald was more severe in Filippa in the ordinary storeroom and Jonathan spot in cold storage. Fungal infection was present under the former conditions, especially in 1938-9, but was greatly reduced by pre-cooling. Gravenstein sustained severe injury from low-temperature breakdown in cold storage, while brown heart was also destructive under similar conditions, especially in 1938-9. In both years scald was more prevalent in ordinary, and Jonathan spot in cold storage. Fungal infection in the ordinary storeroom was reduced by pre-cooling in the former year, while in the latter it was relatively unimportant. Nonnetit suffered heavy damage from Jonathan spot in cold storage especially in 1939-40 and without a preliminary period in the ordinary storeroom; in 1938-9 the trouble was intensified by pre-cooling. Scald was severe in the ordinary storeroom in the earlier year, especially where cooling was omitted. In both seasons pre-cooling enhanced the keeping properties of Pederstrup, while delay in exposure to low temperatures impaired them. Scald and Jonathan spot occurred in the ordinary storeroom in both seasons, the latter also to a slight extent in the cold store in 1938-9. Scald was prevalent in the S<o>nderskov variety in the ordinary storeroom, especially in the absence of pre-cooling. In nearly all the tests on pears the advantages of cold storage were manifest, but the difficulty of achieving satisfactory results is much greater than in the case of apples, and a number of critical points remain to be settled before proceeding with the method.

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Accession: 013470415

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