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Studies on cyclic Passage of Yellow Fever Virus in South American Mammals and Mosquitoes. Marmosets (Callithrix aurita) and Cebus Monkeys (Cebus versutus) in Combination with Aedes aegypti and Haemagogus equinus



Studies on cyclic Passage of Yellow Fever Virus in South American Mammals and Mosquitoes. Marmosets (Callithrix aurita) and Cebus Monkeys (Cebus versutus) in Combination with Aedes aegypti and Haemagogus equinus



Amer. J. trop. Med, Baltimore, Md., 25: 3, 225-230



An account is given of laboratory experiments on the transmission of jungle yellow fever in which a Brazilian strain of virus was maintained in serial passage for nine cycles with a marmoset (Callithrix aurita} as the host and Aedes aegypti, L., as the vector, another virulent Brazilian strain was maintained for five cycles and a mild Colombian strain for two cycles with Cebus monkeys (C. versutus) as the host and A. aegypti as the vector and the first Brazilian strain was maintained for three cycles with the marmoset as the host and Haemagogus equinus, Theo., as the vector. The third series was interrupted through an accident to the test moquitos and the fourth for lack of fresh ones. Callithrix and Cebus are the two widely distributed genera of primates in Brazil. In no case did a marmoset exposed to A. aegypti fail to become infected, and of the 17 animals so exposed, 15 died. Both the survivors were immune 21 days after exposure. Virus circulated for four and five days, respectively, in these animals and until death in the others. The period elapsing between the mosquitos' infective meal and the time they were allowed to feed on a normal experimental animal varied from 19 to 73 days, and the number of mosquitos used in making the passages from four to 120. All the Cebus monkeys exposed to the virulent strain showed circulating virus and all those that recovered developed immunity. Only two out of 13 died, one from intercurrent infection. The period between the infective and test feeding varied from 26 to 52 days and the number of mosquitos used from 15 to 143. Circulating virus was present in Cebus monkeys 3-5 days after infection and sometimes as much as 7 days after it, but the concentration was low compared with that found in marmosets. Not all the experimental monkeys circulated the mild strain in concentrations adequate to infect mosquitos consistently. Five of eight marmosets fed on by H. equinus showed circulating virus and died. The others neither showed circulating virus nor developed immunity. This may have been because the mosquitos were used too soon or in inadequate number on account of the difficulty of maintaining individuals of this genus in the laboratory. Females of H. equinus were reared and maintained following infection at 26-28 degrees C. and a relative humidity of 70-90 per cent. Three females of H. spegazzinii, Breth., a species found in regions where jungle yellow fever is endemic in Brazil, transmitted the virus from an infected to a normal marmoset. Ine importance of these observations in relation to me epidemiology of jungle yellow fever in South America is briefly discussed, and it is considered possible that the virus may be maintained in the form of wandering epidemics in forested areas in which there are adequate populations of marmosets or Cebus monkeys and an effective vector.

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